Presentation on theme: "Three features: armed pilgrimage, just war, Germanic warrior culture All members were pilgrims Spiritual merit and penitential activity. Most pilgrims—barefoot."— Presentation transcript:
Three features: armed pilgrimage, just war, Germanic warrior culture All members were pilgrims Spiritual merit and penitential activity. Most pilgrims—barefoot in robes—too dangerous in Holy Land. 1078 Roman Council ruled that pilgrims could arm themselves for self-defense—led to armed bands of pilgrims. Wore pilgrims signs—seashell—but in this instance the cross—cloth cross sewed onto one’s clothes—blessed by priest—gave the mission a supernatural connection “taking the cross”
Criteria that made war just 1. Charlemagne against aggressive pagan Saxons Reconquista seen as just “prescribed conditions”—right authority, right intention, just cause Goal: liberate Jerusalem, protect pilgrims. Cluny, local councils Peace of God, Truce of God. primogeniture
Fusion of warfare and Christianity Clovis’ conversion—then attacks heretics. Charlemagne—Saxons Crusades allowed knights to practice skills within a Christian context. --death as a form of popular religion. Vicarious form of religion Perfect conflation: Knights Templar, Hospitallers, Crusading orders in Spain, and Teutonic knights in Baltic. Took monastic vows and then fought.
URBAN IICOUNCIL OF CLERMONT Urban’s speech “First Crusade”—no contemporary account although five later ones. Turks—”an accursed race” Help our eastern Christian brothers Stop fighting amongst ourselves and recover the holy Land. All who fight would gain a reward in heaven.
5 sources Moslem victories are a disgrace to Christendom. nobles of Christendom should give up their continuous strife amongst themselves and turn their swords against the enemies of the faith to aid the Churches of the East Recover the Holy Land. This would be a Holy War, and all who died in it would gain a reward in Heaven.
Unite Christendom during Investiture Conflict under papal leadership. End schism with Constantinople Increase papal prestige at the expense of the emperor. Provide an outlet for well trained knights— speech in France—mentions “French race” in speech. Also mentions other reasons to “take the cross”
Urban explains Opportunity to gain land in the land of milk and honey Papal protection of property Plenary indulgence—extraordinary form of penance. Urban had no idea what he had unleashed. Preachers passed out red crosses—no one knows what they promised.
Vented an apocalyptic and millenarial response Groups of peasants, others persuaded to go Anti-Semitism—pogroms in the Rhineland. No kings—but counts and second sons Count of Toulouse, many Normans—already bad blood with Byzantium. Most take sea route Venetians, Pisans, Genoese provide transport
No real idea of geography—overland groups in Balkans fought with natives. Urban appointed Bishop of Le Puy as leader. Preachers preached with fervor—but not with realism. 1096 peasants hoards arrive—Peter the Hermit led one group—Walter the Penniless another-- Emperor Alexius horrified ships them off to Asia Minor. When knights arrived—already bad blood— Alexius wanted an oath that lands would return to him.
Greeks effeminate Luxury loving Schismatics Not trustworthy Greeks saw Latins ( Celts, Franks) as backwards and barbarous Crusaders thought they would receive a warm treatment—instead Alexius demands oath and negotiates with Turks behind their back.
Nicaea 1097 Crusaders vs. Turks—Byzantine diplomacy Crusaders felt betrayed and marched through Anatolia without Greek help. June 1098 Antioch Disease, Turks, holy lance. Aid to Edessa July 1099 Jerusalem
Edessa, Tripoli, Antioch, Jerusalem Feudalized—Jerusalem a papal fief. Economically dependent on Italian ports Desert interior—how to persuade men to stay Knights Hospitaller (1113) Hospital of St. John Knights Templar (1119) Monastic/military conflation
1144 Edessa falls –Second Crusade—Louis VII 1187 Jerusalem falls—Third Crusade—Philip II, Richard I, Frederick Barbarossa 1204 Fourth Crusade—sacks Constantinople Eight major Crusades—only First successful-- —in Fifth Crusade, natives give Jerusalem to Frederick II Militant Islam Crusades become political tools of popes in 13 th c.
Childrens’ Crusade Louis IX’s two crusades By 1250 Crusading ideal dead.