3People of the Oaxaca Valley For centuries, lived in scattered villages throughout fertile valley with mild climate1000 BCE San Jose Mogote: emerges as main power in regionFacial similarities to the Olmec seen in sculptures
4Zapotec Culture Markers Stone platforms, temples, monument sculptures500 BC early forms of writing and a calendar systemA funerary urn in the shape of a "bat god" or a jaguar, from Oaxaca, dated to CE 300–650. Height: 9.5 in
5Monte Alban: 1st urban center in Americas 500 BC on a mountain top, could view the entire valleyHome to about 15,000-25,000 peopleGiant plazas paved with stone, pyramids, temples, and palaces, observatory for starsResidential space around city center
7Zapotec Decline Sometime after 600 CE Possibly from loss of trade or other economic difficultiesPalace of Columns, Mitla, OaxacaJade Zapotec warrior's mask from, Monte Alban
8Time out!What did the Zapotec have in their urban center that will remain in future urban development?What are some similarities between the Olmec and Zapotec?What geographic features made the Oaxaca Valley suitable for the Zapotec?
10Early City-state: large urban centers Population 150, ,000 peopleCentral avenue with 20 pyramids for various godsPeople lived in apartment block buildingsThriving trade network: obsidian, green or black volcanic glass used to make sharp weaponsPyramid of the Sun: 200 feet tall
11Teotihuacan DeclineThere is no evidence that Teotihuacan conquered its neighbors or tried to create an empire but their art and religion is spread throughout MesoamericaTeotihuacan declines from either internal conflict of ruling class or outside invasion
13Toltec Warrior GodsToltecs worshipped many warrior gods, based on conquestWarrior god demanded blood and sacrifice from his followersStone pillars, pyramids and temples for warrior gods
14Topiltzin Changes Religion Sometime after 1000 BCE, ruler name Topiltzin tries to end human sacrifice and encourage worship of Quetzalcoatl: “feathered serpent”Followers of the war gods rebelled and Topiltzin and Quetzacoatl were banishedThey become a legend and are supposed to return and bring light and peace to the people
15Time out! On what was Teotihuacan’s power and wealth based? What is believed to be the decline of Teotihuacan?Why would a ruler try to change a state religion?Who was the thought to be the return of the legendary Topiltzin and Quetzalcoatl?
18Tenochtitlan Under modern day Mexico City (leveled by Spaniards Extraordinary urban center by 1500 CE, population between 200,000 and 400,000 (larger than London or any other European capital at the time!)Great Temple dedicated to the Sun God and Rain God
20Aztec Power Based on military conquest Loose government run by local officials, emperor is supremeTribute: in the form of gold, maize, cacao beans, cotton, jade and other productsIf you refused to pay, the Aztecs responded brutally
21Geography GeniusesRaised roads (causeways) to connect island to mainlandFarming done on chinampas: farm plots built on marsh
22Religion Rules Aztec Life Worshipped 1,000 gods, including Quetzacoatl from the ToltecsElaborate public ceremonies to communicate with gods in order to please them
23Human SacrificeSun god: Huitzilopotchli made the sun rise every day. When the sun set, he had to battle evil to bring about the next day. To make him strong, the Aztec people offered human blood. If they did not do this, the sun would not rise. Priests carved out hearts with obsidian.
24Time out! How did the Aztecs rule their empire? How did the Aztecs overcome geographic problems?Why did the Aztecs see human sacrifice as necessary?How did the need for human sacrifice lead to overpopulation and problems controlling the empire?
27Montezuma and Aztec Decline 1502 Montezuma II: empire begins to weaken because ruler wants more tribute and sacrificeLeads to unrest and rebellionAztecs predict bad things will happen: lightning strikes temple, solar eclipse…the SpanishI will get my revenge!!!