Do Now: After reading the excerpt from A History of the World in 6 Glasses, answer the following questions: How does the production and distribution of coffee change during this time period (1450- 1750)? To what extent does the shift in the production of coffee from Arabs to Europeans reflect the broader shift in world power occurring during the Early Modern Period? How does the production and distribution of coffee change during this time period (1450- 1750)? To what extent does the shift in the production of coffee from Arabs to Europeans reflect the broader shift in world power occurring during the Early Modern Period?
Coffee 15 th Century- first drunk in Yemen 16 th Century- spread throughout Arab/ Muslim world – Some religious leaders outlawed it due to its stimulating effect – Caught on and was widely consumed along with tobacco 17 th Century- spread to major cities/centers of trade throughout Europe by Arabs who held a monopoly on production – Coffeehouses sprung up – Enlightenment ideas spread – Tobacco also consumed 18 th Century- Europeans gain control of coffee production. First Dutch then French begin to produce it in their tropical colonies and sell it throughout Europe, Americas, and middle East. Eventually Brazil became dominant coffee producer leaving Arabia behind… (History of the World in 6 Glasses)
“Gunpowder Empires” Decisive advantage during this period was the use of cannons and artillery Chinese limited use of gunpowder during this period because the scholar-gentry feared it would give too much power to the military Japan practically eliminated the use of firearms to preserve the feudal order Europe, the Ottomans, Safavid, and Mughal used firepower to dominate
The Ottoman Empire (1300s-1923) Political Turkic nomads from C. Asia Warrior aristocracy Sultan, grand vizier, bureaucracy Hereditary with confusing rules for succession Janissaries: slave troops of Christian boys Mehmed II- defeated Byzantine 1453 Height of empire 16 th century under Suleiman the magnificent/the lawgiver Warfare and expansion – Defeated Safavid at Battle of Chaldrian 1514 – Sizeable army (+200,00 cavalry) and navy of (+90 warships)
Cultural Sunni Muslims Significant minority of Jews and Christians Polygamy Janissaries/devshirme=practice of recruiting Christian children Fell behind in science and technology Turkish language replaced Arabic “people of the book” Hagia Sophia converted into Mosque Interactions Eastern Mediterranean Battle of Lepanto, lost Battle of Chaldrian, won Lost position of prominence
Safavid Empire 1501-1722 POLITICAL Started by Sail-al-Din Warrior aristocracy +40,000 cavalry; no navy Cannons not widely used Shah Abbas I-height (built roads, mosques, increased trade) Used captured Russian boys as slaves in military Shah of Shahs (King of Kings) SOCIAL Low status for women: confined to home and veiled Increased role of religious scholars (MULLAHS)
Cultural Islamic fundamentalism Shiia majority Religious schools Small Sufi, Jew, and Christian populations Forced conversion of non-Muslims/were tolerant in some cases Persian language dominated over Turkish Isfahan mosque built INTERACTIONS Lost Battle of Chaldrian Did not spread much beyond Persia ECONOMIC Traded silk, textiles, carpets Created large building projects
Do Now 10/30 1.According to the Hindu clerk, why is everyone in the kingdom “restless” including Akbar? 2.What evidence from the text supports the claim that Akbar is tolerant of diverse religious beliefs? 3.Why was Akbar so concerned about conquest and weaponry? 4.Compare this attitude to the Ottoman rulers…what similarities/differences do you notice in military organization and conquest? 1.According to the Hindu clerk, why is everyone in the kingdom “restless” including Akbar? 2.What evidence from the text supports the claim that Akbar is tolerant of diverse religious beliefs? 3.Why was Akbar so concerned about conquest and weaponry? 4.Compare this attitude to the Ottoman rulers…what similarities/differences do you notice in military organization and conquest?
Mughal Empire (1523-1700s) POLITICAL Turkic nomads/Mongol Capital at Delhi Most ppl in empire were Hindu Babur-”the Tiger” united much of Indian sub-continent Akbar “the Great”-developed the warrior aristocracy – Religious toleration – Din-Il-Ilahi – Abolished jizya – Tried to eliminate sati and seclusion for women Aurengzeb-reversed toleration and led to decline Large army; no navy SOCIAL Most ppl lived in poverty No widow remarriage Hindu traditions of sati, female seclusion, and child marriage, and burden of the dowry, infanticide Women did have some influence in the harem and some inheritance rights
ECONOMIC Cotton textile industry Trade Indian Ocean then increasing threat of Europeans Cultural Cooperation with non-Muslims under Akbar-abolished jizya Sikhs Patrons of arts Shah Jahan- Taj Mahal Blended Persian and Hindu traditions Sharia Law INTERACTIONS European influence by 17 th century/used force Cotton trade in Indian Ocean Decline b/c European bullion led to inflation and peasant rebellions Rising threat of Europe
What do all 3 have in common? What is unique to each? Ottoman Mughal Safavid
Reasons for decline of Muslim Empires Despite military advantages they failed to advance transport and communication systems They had ineffective imperial bureaucracies – Fragile and overstretched Conservative military and religious leaders did not want to modernize Fell behind in trade and warfare techniques ------------- Western Europe had effective nation-states and continued to advance their technology, communication, and transportation systems resulting in western European hegemony and a decline of Muslim empires Africa, the Americas, and SE Asia were not even players