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PEACE THEOLOGY 101 Introduction to Peace Theology. This course will help the students to appreciate and to evaluate a biblical understanding and contemporary.

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Presentation on theme: "PEACE THEOLOGY 101 Introduction to Peace Theology. This course will help the students to appreciate and to evaluate a biblical understanding and contemporary."— Presentation transcript:

1 PEACE THEOLOGY 101 Introduction to Peace Theology. This course will help the students to appreciate and to evaluate a biblical understanding and contemporary practice of Peace Theology. Such evaluation will be done within the framework of social sciences and informed from the perspective of biblical theology. The students will be intellectually, emotionally, and volitionally involved in the current discussions on the meanings, proposals, and tasks of Peace Theology.

2 NEVI’IM. The Prophets ( נְבִיאִים Prophets) 6. ( יהושע Y'hoshua) - Joshua 7. ( שופטים Shophtim) - Judges 8. ( שמואל Sh'muel) - Samuel (I & II) 9. ( מלכים M'lakhim) - Kings (I & II) 10. ( ישעיה Y'shayahu) - Isaiah 11. ( ירמיה Yir'mi'yahu) - Jeremiah 12. ( יחזקאל Y'khezqel) - Ezekiel 13. The Twelve Prophets ( תרי עשר ) a. ( הושע Hoshea) - Hosea b. ( יואל Yo'el) - Joel c. ( עמוס Amos) - Amos d. ( עובדיה Ovadyah) - Obadiah e. ( יונה Yonah) - Jonah f. ( מיכה Mikhah) - Micah g. ( נחום Nakhum) - Nahum h. ( חבקוק Havakuk) - Habakkuk i. ( צפניה Ts'phanyah) - Zephaniah j. ( חגי Khagai) - Haggai k. ( זכריה Z'kharyah) - Zechariah l. ( מלאכי Mal'akhi) - Malachi TANAK ORIENTATION PEACE THEOLOGY 101

3 TORAH. The Torah ( תּוֹרָה literally "teaching“). 1.( בראשית Bereshit) Genesis 2. ( שמות Shemot) Exodus 3. ( ויקרא Vayikra) Leviticus 4. ( במדבר Bamidbar) Numbers 5. ( דברים Devarim) Deuteronomy TANAK ORIENTATION PEACE THEOLOGY 101

4 TANAK ORIENTATION 14. ( תהלים Tehillim) - Psalms 15. ( משלי Mishlei) - Proverbs 16. ( איוב Iyov) - Job 17. ( שיר השירים Shir Hashirim) – Song of Songs 18. ( רות Rut) - Ruth 19. ( איכה Eikhah) - Lamentations 20. ( קהלת Kohelet) - Ecclesiastes 21. ( אסתר Esther) - Esther 22. (( דניאל Dani'el) - Daniel 23. ( עזרא ונחמיה Ezra v'Nechemia) Ezra-Nehemiah 24. ( דברי הימים Divrei Hayamim) Chronicles (I & II) KETUVIM ( כְּתוּבִים Writings") PEACE THEOLOGY 101

5 ANCIENT MIDDLE EAST PEACE THEOLOGY 101

6 What does it mean for biblical theology that Yahweh is a warrior? YAHWEH IS A WARRIOR PEACE THEOLOGY 101

7 A. CHARACTERISTICS OF YAHWEH’S WAR: 1.PROPHET-LED. The fundamental paradigm was miracle, not human-made weapons. 2.YAHWEH WAS THE KING. The people’s leader was not a violent, divinely-appointed hero. The political structure was “prophetic.” 3.BASIS WAS YAHWEH’S CHARACTER. It was directed not only against Israel’s enemies but at times against Israel herself. 1. YAHWEH AS WARRIOR PEACE THEOLOGY 101

8 B. WORKING THROUGH PRIMARY HISTORY WITHIN BIBLICAL TEXTS 1.PRIMARY HISTORY Genesis - 2 Kings :: contains oldest traditions of warfare :: provides foundation for understanding warfare in biblical writings 2.SECONDARY HISTORY Chronicles, Ezra-Nehemiah 1. YAHWEH AS WARRIOR PEACE THEOLOGY 101

9 C. WAS THE MIRACULOUS NATURE OF HOLY WAR DERIVED FROM HISTORICAL EVENTS? 1.TYPE A: No, the miraculous nature of Holy War was not derived from historical events. Schwally, Pedersen, Von Rad, & Miller 2.TYPE B: We disagree with those Type A scholars above with our respective varying reasons. Smend, Glock, Stolz, Weippert 1. YAHWEH AS WARRIOR PEACE THEOLOGY 101

10 FRIEDRICH SCHWALLY Completed his PhD in Old Testament Studies1888; in 1889 he obtained a teaching credential for Religion, Hebrew and German; did a comparative method in his study of ancient warfare :: Observed that all ancient peoples claimed the gods’ participation in their battles; because the gods’ fought, the warriors were to fight all the harder. Within ancient Israel, the claim was that divine help made it unnecessary for the warriors to fight :: Ascribed this to late Judaic historical writing because of its interest in edification, exaggerated the importance of faith in divine help… (Der heilige Krieg im alten Israel, Leipzig,1901) PEACE THEOLOGY 101

11 JOHANNES PEDERSEN He was a noted theologian and linguist. Pedersen believed that "objective thought, that is to say, inactive, disinterested thought" does not exist in most instances. Pederson was committed to the assumption that the full social context is necessary to understanding written texts. Among ancient peoples, Pedersen observed, weapons alone did not decide the issue in warfare. “…it was infinitely of greater importance that those who were to use them possessed the proper psychic force and the efficiency of the weapons themselves in the battle depended on their consecration and consequent pervasion by holiness.” “By a very slight change the narrator has created quite a new picture of war out of the old elements.” (Israel, It’s Life and Culture III-IV, London, 1934, pp.1-32) PEACE THEOLOGY 101

12 GERHARD VON RAD He was a German Lutheran pastor, University professor and an Old Testament scholar. With the experience of two World Wars, the German- speaking world began to turn "anti-Old Testament". Disturbed by this, Rad turned to the study of the Old Testament and gradually started to bring back its message. His lively papers achieved a renewal of interest and research in Old Testament studies. :: According to Von Rad, the emphasis on miracle in those narratives that excludes or downgrade the value of human fighting is not historical but theological in origin. :: Von Rad maintained that this emphasis arose from the changed situation during the time of Solomon (due primarily to the “enlightenment,” the impact of the international wisdom literature upon Israel). (Der heilige Krieg im alten Israel, Göttingen,1952) PEACE THEOLOGY 101

13 PATRICK D. MILLER, JR. Patrick D. Miller is Charles T. Haley Professor of Old Testament Theology Emeritus at Princeton Theological Seminary in New Jersey. He is the author of numerous books, coeditor of the series Interpretation: A Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching and the Westminster Bible Companion series, and served as editor of Theology Today for twenty years. “As the centuries passed and the tradition grew, there came a tendency to ascribe the victory solely to the miraculous intervention of Yahweh apart from any participation of the people, but in the early period of Israel’s history there was no such abdication on the part of the people.” (The Divine Warrior in Early Israel, 1973, p.156.) PEACE THEOLOGY 101

14 RUDOLF SMEND YAHWEH IS A WARRIOR He was a German theologian who was born in Lengerich, Westphalia. He was an authority on constitutional and ecclesiastical law. :: He interpreted the spiritualization of war narratives as a later rewriting, but he argued that this revision was not a case of theologizing in a vacuum, but rather of theologizing based upon a foundational covenant event (Sinai) in tension with the foundational war event (the exodus) that had occurred at the very beginning of Israel’s history as individual clans. (Jahwekrieg und Stämmebund, 1963, pp. 134f.)

15 A. GLOCK A. Glock finished his Ph.D. at the University of Michigan in :: Mari existed 600 years before Israel – progress in war technology symbolized by the horse and chariot :: Glock claimed that Israel’s failure to emply these contemporary weapons was not merely a result of political necessity, but represented a deliberate, conscious choice, a form of resistance to a caste system and to monarchy. (Warfare in Mari and Early Israel, Michigan,1968) PEACE THEOLOGY 101

16 FRITZ STOLZ A German biblical scholar and orientalist and a professor of general history of religion and religious studies at the Theological Faculty of the University of Zurich. He was one of the most famous German scholars of religion. :: He claimed that the idea of divine power as contrasted with human powerlessness originated not in Israel’s political experience with the superior power of the Canaanites, but rather in the pre-Israelite cult of Jerusalem inherited by David.” (Jahwes und Israel’s Krieg, Zurich, 1972, p. 7) PEACE THEOLOGY 101

17 MANFRED WEIPPERT Administrator of a scientific assistant in Göttingen, Tübingen; in and in 1971 PhD and Habilitation in Tübingen; in research assistant and lecturer at Tübingen; in , full professor of Semitic languages ​​ at Utrecht in 1983 ; currently Full Professor of Old Testament theology in Heidelberg. :: He noted that outside of Israel as well as within, victory was often expressed not as an action of the army but as an action of the gods alone. :: According to him, Yahweh in an incomparable measure was the god of the people, the “God of Israel.” (Heilieger Krieg’ in Israel und Assyrien, 1972, pp ) PEACE THEOLOGY 101

18 CHARACTERISTICS OF YAHWEH’S WAR: 1.PROPHET-LED. The fundamental paradigm was miracle, not human-made weapons. 2.YAHWEH WAS THE KING. The people’s leader was not a violent, divinely-appointed hero. The political structure was “prophetic.” 3.BASIS WAS YAHWEH’S CHARACTER. It was directed not only against Israel’s enemies but at times against Israel herself. 1. YAHWEH AS WARRIOR YAHWEH IS A WARRIOR

19 PEACE THEOLOGY 101


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