Presentation on theme: "A work in progress. JAPANESE AND WESTERN EUROPEAN FEUDALISM A. Japanese feudalism 1. had example of Chinese imperialism 2. attempted to use Confucianism."— Presentation transcript:
JAPANESE AND WESTERN EUROPEAN FEUDALISM A. Japanese feudalism 1. had example of Chinese imperialism 2. attempted to use Confucianism to create a bureaucracy 3. centralized administration could not be established B. Western European feudalism 1. had example of Roman imperialism 2. could not organize or afford necessary armies 3. could not agree on standardized laws 4. lacked means to support an independent bureaucracy that could cut across regional societies and language groups, except the Church C. Both later developed more centralized political systems 1. Japan drew on Confucian precedents 2. Western Europe built nation-states 3. each had to incorporate centuries of feudal heritage, therefore unable to replicate imperial political structures of China and Rome
D. Similarities 1. experienced long periods of semi-centralized rule 2. claims of central authorities are not matched by effective power 3. regional leaders have own armies and administer own localities 4. kings have to make deals with regional leaders 5. political values embraced most participants 6. aristocratic lords controlled the peasant masses 7. idea of mutual ties and obligations 8. both were highly militaristic a. frequent and bitter internal warfare b. military virtues impeded development of more stable, centralized government 9. military feudalism survived the feudal eras a. Japan had trouble controlling Samurai class b. West could not rid itself of the warrior ethic that the central purpose of the state was to make war E. Differences 1. West emphasized contractual ideas more strongly than the Japanese 2. Japan relied more heavily on group and individual loyalties not confirmed by contractual agreements
3. legacy of feudalism in West are parliamentary institutions 4. legacy of feudalism in Japan are individuals functioning as part of collective decisionteams linked to the state F. Both have been unusually successful in industrial development 1. adept at running capitalist economies 2. propensity for imperialist expansion and resort to war to solve conflicts with foreign powers 3. feudalism was possibly a basis for later economic dynamism
Chivalry is the generic term for the knightly system of the Middle Ages and for virtues and qualities it inspired in its followers. The word evolved from terms such as chevalier (French), caballero (Spanish), and cavaliere (Italian), all meaning a warrior who fought on horseback. The term came to mean so much more during medieval times. Chivalric orders first appeared with military activities against non-Christian states. During the Middle Ages, Western Europe aggressively sought to expand its area of control. The first orders of chivalry were very similar to the monastic orders of the era. Both sought the sanctification of their members through combat against "infidels" and protection of religious pilgrims, and both had commitments that involved the taking of vows and submitting to a regulation of activities. 13th Century conventions of chivalry directed that men should honor, serve, and do nothing to displease ladies and maidens. Knights were members of the noble class socially as bearers of arms, economically as owners of horse and armor, and officially through religious-oriented ceremony. While some were knighted on the battlefield, most spent long years as a squire, practicing the art of war while serving his master. People during the Middle Ages heard of the exploits of knights both mythical and real in epics like La Chanson de Roland and Le Morte D'Arthur. After the Crusades, knights continued to show their prowess and skills in medieval tournaments.
Bushido( Pronunciation: "BOO-she-doh" or "BOO-she-daw”) The code of conduct followed by Japan's samurai warriors. The principles of bushido emphasized honor, courage, and loyalty to a warrior's master above all else. The ideal samurai warrior was supposed to be immune from the fear of death. Only the fear of dishonor, and loyalty to his daimyo, motivated the true samurai. If a samurai felt that he had lost his honor (or was about to lose it) according to the rules of bushido, he could regain his standing by committing a rather painful form of ritual suicide, called seppuku. The word "bushido" comes from the Japanese roots bushi, meaning "warrior," and do, or "way."
JapanJapan The emperor reigned, but did not always rule!
Social ClassSocial, Political and Economic Context Emperor The chief of several clans or family groups called ubi became the Emperor when one of his class took political power. The Emperor and the imperial family had the highest social status. He was a figurehead, a leader in name only. He was the religious leader, but had little political power, and in reality was under control of the shogun's clan. Economically, the people of all other classes of society provided for the Emperor and his court. Shogun The shogun was part of the warrior class, and considered to be a noble. The shogun was the military leader of the most powerful of the Emperor's clans. The clans often fought to acquire this high social status. The shogun was the actual political ruler. He had a high social status and those of the other classes provided for his economic needs in return for protection and privileges (e.g., a small portion of land, some of the produce of the land). Daimyos The daimyos were part of the warrior class. They were nobles at the top of the samurai class. Daimyo translates to mean "great names." The daimyos were the shogun's representatives. They ran the estates according to the shogun's rules. Their swords were their most valuable possessions because they were required to use them often to demonstrate their loyalty to the shogun. They had high social status as members of the warrior class. They lived in huge castles surrounded by moats. Samurai The samuai were members of the warrior class. The samurai were professional warriors of the military aristocracy. They were loyal to the shogun and daimyos, in whose castles they resided. Their position gave them fairly high social status, but little political power. Their economic needs were met by lower classes similar to the arrangement with the daimyos and the shogun. Ronin The ronin were paid soldiers whose loyalty was with the leader they defended at the time. The ronin were wandering samurai who had no daimyos. They worked as body guards for rich merchants or as paid soldiers during civil war. They had low social status, no political power and depended on others for their economic well-being. Peasants The peasants were the largest class, constituting 90% of the population. The peasants included farmers and fishermen. They had very low social status, no political power and were very poor. They were valued because they produced the food for all other classes, and often made the material for clothing. The peasants paid taxes to the daimyos and shogun in the form of rice and work. Often peasants starved when they had to give up more than two-thirds of the year's crops to the upper classes in return for being able to remain on the land. Artisans The artisans were the craftspeople who made a variety of wood and metal products to meet the needs and wants of the other classes. The artisan crafted a variety of products including art, cooking pots, fish hooks, farm tools, utensils, ship anchors and swords. The artisans, who were well-known for their exceptional swords, were highly respected. However, on the whole, this class was not as respected as peasants because they did not produce food. Merchants The merchants sold goods and produce made by others. The merchants were of very low social status and seen as unimportant because they produced nothing of value and lived off the efforts of others' work. So low was the respect for these sellers that, often, they were made to live in separate locations and not allowed to mix with other classes except to do business.
Tokugawa Shogunate Period Japan closed off to all trade [except to the Dutch and Chinese]. The Dutch were restricted to a small island in Nagasaki harbor. Japanese Christians persecuted and Christianity is forbidden. The government is centralized with all power in the hands of the shogun. Domestic trade flourishes. Towns, esp. castle towns, increase. Merchant class becomes rich! New art forms haiku poetry, kabuki theater.
Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543-1616) Appointed shogun by the Emperor. Four-class system laid down with marriage restricted to members of the same class! Warriors. Farmers. Artisans. Merchants.