2Anglo Saxon Period In 449, three groups invaded Britain AnglesSaxonsJutesSeafaring peoples from Germany, Denmark, Sweden, and Netherlands.Came after Romans left seeking landBefore this, the Brythons or Britons (a Celtic people) lived in Britain (Druids, Stonehenge).
3Anglo Saxon Period Anglo-Saxons Drove the natives from the eastern, central, and southern areasBecame known as “Angles Land” or EnglandGermanic language developed into “Angle-ish” or English
4Anglo Saxon Period Anglo Saxons Originally started out with several tribal units organized by a king.Witan= council of elders who would choose the king for each tribal unit; not named by successionKingdoms intertwined until there were 7 tribes left (heptarchy: seven + realm)1. Essex2. Wessex3. Sussex4. North Umbria5. Mercia & the Midlands6. East Anglia7. Kent
6Anglo Saxons & Religion Anglo Saxons were pagans.Paganism= polytheistic religionFate vs. Personal FreedomAnglo Saxons believed that everything was determined by fate or Wyrd.Christians believe that all individuals have the freedom to make their own choices.Early Anglo Saxons worshipped ancient gods of German mythology.
7Anglo Saxon Social Structure 2 classesUpper = earls or thanesLower = thralls or churlsMost honored position in A/S culture = WarriorFond of feasting in mead hall
8Anglo Saxons & Mead Hall All social events began and ended at the mead hall.Mead: Fermented beverages made from honey (Think of beer made from honey)The hall was built by the local lord or king for the entertainment of the Thanes.Thanes: warriors and soldiers loyal to the local lord or king
9Anglo Saxons & Mead Hall Feasting HallGreat Hall of the KingSafest Place in the KingdomAppearanceRectangularPointed roofMiddle trench on the inside for firesTwo long, low tables on each side of the trenchSupported by rows of columns
10Anglo Saxons & Mead Hall “Flytings” held in mead hall where warriors held a contest of wits to praise themselves and belittle othersOnly thing that lasted was fame.ScopsWere storytellers or bardsWere as honored as the warriorProvided entertainment but were touched by the “grace of God”
11The Anglo Saxon Man Athletic Strong Seafaring Adventurous Strong belief in fair play
12Anglo Saxons Ideals Loyalty to Lord or King Great love of personal freedomRespect for womenLove for gloryHonored the truth
13Anglo Saxon Language Old English Germanic language Inflected language Can you figure out these words? wiþ bæþ sceap Þæt nacodOld EnglishGermanic languageInflected languageSome changesAsh – æ – short aThorn – þ - thEth – ð - thWynn – ƿ – wSc – “sh”C – “k”
14Anglo Saxons Literature Venerable Bede (monk & scholar)“Caedmon’s Hymn”Oldest poem in EnglishUneducated shepherd visited by angel in a dreamEcclesiastical History of the English Peopleshow how church brought unity to England, ending a period of violence and barbarism
16Anglo Saxons Literature Caesura - 4 stresses per line with break in middleAlliteration - at least 3 matching consonantsAppositive style - one phrase modifies and intensifies anotherMetonymy - concept to stand for whole (calling lord “giver of rings” stands for his whole role as lord)synecdoche – part to represent whole (twelve sails set out)
17Anglo Saxons Literature Litotes – ironic understatement (Beowulf set out on his “unhappy journey.” - for death)Personification (“Dream of the Rude” or Cross, cross comes to life and talks about its experience with Christ).Kennings – compressed metonymy, little riddles; “whale road” – sea; “lighthouse of the warrior was burned down” – his body; “sky candle” – sun;