5Kenning… What is a kenning? Where would I find one? Book definition: Metaphorical compound words or phrases substituted for simple nouns.(2 or more words that take the place of 1 noun)Where would I find one?Beowulf
6Kenning… Give me an example. -“Shepherd of evil” for Grendel “Folk-king” for Beowulf“Battle-flasher” for sword“Candle of heaven” for the sun.
7Lyric poem… What is a lyric poem? Where would I find one? A short poem in which a single speaker expresses personal thoughts and feelings. In ancient Greece, they were meant to be sung. In modern times, are characterized by strong, melodic rhythms.Where would I find one?Shakespeare’s sonnetsKeats’s odesCan you think of anywhere else?“Seafarer” “Wanderer” “Wife’s Lament”
8Lyric poem… But it’s better than not being alive from straps Agreed A Mead notebook and a Bic that clickWhen it’s pushed and a wack beatThat’s a track that’s weakThat he got last week‘Cause everybody in the storeWas like that’s that heat.He said I right what I seeWrite to make it rightDon’t like where I beI like to make it likeThe sights on TVQuite the great lifeSo nice and easySee now you can still die from that
9Caesura… What is a caesura? Where can I find one? Book definition: a pause dividing a line into two parts.Where can I find one?BeowulfIliadAeneid
10Caesura… Give me an example. An excerpt from Virgil’s Aeneid Of arms and the man, I sing Who first from the shores of TroyOr…Sing, goddess, the rage of Achilles the son of Peleus.caesura
11Epic poem… What is an epic poem? Book definition: A long narrative poem on a serious subject, presented in an elevated or formal style. It traces the adventures of a hero and share some or all of the following characteristics:
12Epic poem…Hero is a figure of high social status and often of great historical or legendary importance.The actions of the hero often determine the fate of a nation or group of people.The hero performs exceedingly courageous, sometimes superhuman, deeds that reflect the ideas and values of the era.The plot is complicated by supernatural beings or events.The setting is large in scale, involving more than one nation and often a long and dangerous journey through foreign lands.Long formal speeches are often given by the main character.The poem discusses universal ideas, such as good and evil, life and death.
13Epic poem… Give me an example. Beowulf Iliad Odyssey Aeneid Paradise Lost
14Alliteration… What is alliteration? Where can I find it? Book definition: The repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words used to emphasize certain words, to heighten moods, to establish a musical effect, to unify a passage, and to create meaning.Where can I find it?Poems, speeches, short stories, novels…Beowulf
15Alliteration… Give me an example. An excerpt from Beowulf Out from the marsh, from the foot of mistyHills and bogs, bearing God’s hatred,Grendel came,
16The Anglo-Saxon and Medieval Periods p discussBayeux TapestryHow do you define great literature?How would you paraphrase C.S. Lewis’ quotationBased on the art, quotation, and unit title, what do you think the selections in this unit might be about?
17P TimelineSelect the 3 events you think are most significant and explain why. List these on poster or overhead & discuss.
19Historical Background Read p and complete The Anglo-Saxon Period Handout.
20Celts occupied British Isle Around 600 B.C. . .Celts occupied British IslePicsWelshIrishA.K.A Britons & Gaels
21Where did they live?Britons lived on the larger island, now known as BritainGaels lived on the smaller island, now known as Irelandsee p. 13 in textbook
22Britons & Gaels (Celts) Spoke different languagesMainly farmersUsed iron toolsLived in hut villagesMany tribal wars
23As you read, look for examples. . . Celtic Religion“Pagan” religionWorship of trees & natureDruids were priests in charge ofRitualsPrayerssacrificesAs you read, look for examples. . .
24Julius Caesar “Conquers” Britons 55 B.C.Julius Caesar claimed victoryNamed it BritanniaWent back to RomeNo real Roman presence for next 100 years.Caesar’s battle records 1st historic record of England
25Roman Emperor Claudius Invaded “Britannia” in 43 A.D.Set up camps across the entire areaRoman rule lasted 300 yearsProsperous time for the island
26Roman Contributions to Britain RoadsWell-pavedHighway system connecting much of the island
27More Roman Contributions: ArchitectureMeeting hallsLaw courtsTemplesAmphitheatersPublic baths
28Romans Leave in 407 A.D.Roman troops recalled to RomeRome was under attack from other European tribesLeft Britannia vulnerable for attack
29Anglo-Saxon Invasion Comprised of 3 groups Angles Saxons Jutes Conquered Brittany Ca. 441 A.D.
31Anglo-Saxon LifeBy 600 A.D. Britannia became “Angleland” and later EnglandAnglo-Saxons were excellent seafarers and agricultural peopleWomen had very defined domestic roles
32Anglo-Saxon LifeOld English is the common languageTribal wars commonPagan religionOrganized tribal hierarchy
33Anglo-Saxon Pagan Beliefs Wyrd (fate) determined their destinyTo attain immortality you must be Remembered after death for what you did on EarthScop can help you attain immortality
34Christian vs. Pagan Beliefs God Determines DestinyImmortality through salvationWorship 1 GodWyrd (fate) determines destinyImmortality= remembranceWorship many gods
35Christian vs. Pagan Beliefs Beowulf was originally told by a Pagan scop, but first written down by a Christain scribe, probably a priest.It ends up being a blending of both Pagan and Christian beliefs.
36Anglo-Saxon Gods3 Days of our week are named for Anglo-Saxon Pagan godsTuesday = TiuWednesday = WodenFriday = Fria
37Conversion to Christianity 597 A.D. St. Augustine of Canterbury arrives in KentConverted King EthelbertStrategy: convert Anglo-Saxon kings who would then convert peopleBy 650 A.D. most of England is Christian
39Anglo-Saxon Tribal Hierarchy KingLord a.k.a. “loaf ward” (guardian of the bread)Earl--ruling warlords w/sworn allegiance to kingFreeman—Earl gave churl freedom & enough land for churl’s family
40Anglo-Saxon Tribal Hierarchy (cont.) Churl (serf)- servants who work the land in exchange for military protection, food, shelter. Cannot be a warrior.Thrall (slaves)—military prisoners or undesirable
41See Princess Bride Clip You killed my father; prepare to die!
42Wergild Was the Way of Life Word means “man price”Heroic code to avenge wrong you or your kin suffered at the hands of enemy.Avenge in 2 waysEnemy pays you gold or landYou kill enemy or whatever vengeance you deem necessary
43Comitatus: the Warrior’s Code Comitatus—Latin term for the mutual loyalty between a king and his knightsWarriors pledged to protect and defend their lord at any cost, even their very lives.The chief fought for victory, the followers fought for the chief.
44Comitatus: the Warrior’s Code On battlefield, disgrace for chief to be surpassed by his followersDisgraceful for warrior if king dies and warrior doesn’t—meant a life of infamy and shame
45Is Comitatus still alive today? The Patriot clipScene # 25
49Anglo-Saxon Scop Poet performers Sing/chant for hours Accompanied by harpOral literature, not written
50Why was the Scop such an important member of Anglo-Saxon society?
51Characteristics of Anglo-Saxon Poetry Alliteration—repetition of initial consonant soundCaesura—mid-line pauseRhyme or syllables not importantFormal pattern of word stressesKennings—poetic use of 2 nouns to name something
52Characteristics of Anglo-Saxon Poetry Alliteration—repetition of initial consonant soundSally sells seashells by the seashoreRound the rugged rock the ragged rascal ran
53Characteristics of Anglo-Saxon Poetry Caesura—mid-line pauseall the graybeards whispered togetherall the gray beards, whispered together
54Characteristics of Anglo-Saxon Poetry Kennings—poetic use of 2 nouns to name somethinggray beardsshe-wolfheaven’s candle
55End of Anglo-Saxon Era Anglo-Saxon society peeks in 8th Century c.a. 793 A.D. Danish/Viking Invasions1066 Battle of Hastings ended Anglo-Saxon England and Anglo-Norman England begins