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What have we been learning? Where did English come from? What have been the major influences on our language? What was Anglo-Saxon life like? What’s a.

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Presentation on theme: "What have we been learning? Where did English come from? What have been the major influences on our language? What was Anglo-Saxon life like? What’s a."— Presentation transcript:

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2 What have we been learning? Where did English come from? What have been the major influences on our language? What was Anglo-Saxon life like? What’s a hero?

3 Today’s Questions What is an epic? Who wrote Beowulf? Can you define syntax

4 Beowulf

5 What is a kenning? – –Book definition: Metaphorical compound words or phrases substituted for simple nouns. – –(2 or more words that take the place of 1 noun) Where would I find one? – –Beowulf

6 Give me an example. -“Shepherd of evil” for Grendel – –“Folk-king” for Beowulf – –“Battle-flasher” for sword – –“Candle of heaven” for the sun.

7 What is a lyric poem? – –A short poem in which a single speaker expresses personal thoughts and feelings. In ancient Greece, they were meant to be sung. In modern times, are characterized by strong, melodic rhythms. Where would I find one? – –Shakespeare’s sonnets – –Keats’s odes – –Can you think of anywhere else? – –“Seafarer” “Wanderer” “Wife’s Lament”

8 He said I right what I see Write to make it right Don’t like where I be I like to make it like The sights on TV Quite the great life So nice and easy See now you can still die from that But it’s better than not being alive from straps Agreed A Mead notebook and a Bic that click When it’s pushed and a wack beat That’s a track that’s weak That he got last week ‘Cause everybody in the store Was like that’s that heat.

9 What is a caesura? – –Book definition: a pause dividing a line into two parts. Where can I find one? – –Beowulf – –Iliad – –Aeneid

10 Give me an example. – –An excerpt from Virgil’s Aeneid Of arms and the man, I sing. Who first from the shores of Troy Or… Sing, goddess,the rage of Achilles the son of Peleus. caesura

11 What is an epic poem? – –Book definition: A long narrative poem on a serious subject, presented in an elevated or formal style. It traces the adventures of a hero and share some or all of the following characteristics:

12 Hero is a figure of high social status and often of great historical or legendary importance. The actions of the hero often determine the fate of a nation or group of people. The hero performs exceedingly courageous, sometimes superhuman, deeds that reflect the ideas and values of the era. The plot is complicated by supernatural beings or events. The setting is large in scale, involving more than one nation and often a long and dangerous journey through foreign lands. Long formal speeches are often given by the main character. The poem discusses universal ideas, such as good and evil, life and death.

13 Give me an example. – –Beowulf – –Iliad – –Odyssey – –Aeneid – –Paradise Lost

14 What is alliteration? – –Book definition: The repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words used to emphasize certain words, to heighten moods, to establish a musical effect, to unify a passage, and to create meaning. Where can I find it? – –Poems, speeches, short stories, novels… – –Beowulf

15 Give me an example. – –An excerpt from Beowulf Out from the marsh, from the foot of misty Hills and bogs, bearing God’s hatred, Grendel came,

16 The Anglo-Saxon and Medieval Periods p discuss Bayeux Tapestry Bayeux Tapestry How do you define great literature? How do you define great literature? How would you paraphrase C.S. Lewis’ quotation How would you paraphrase C.S. Lewis’ quotation Based on the art, quotation, and unit title, what do you think the selections in this unit might be about? Based on the art, quotation, and unit title, what do you think the selections in this unit might be about?

17 P Timeline Select the 3 events you think are most significant and explain why. List these on poster or overhead & discuss.

18 Most important Timeline Events:

19 Historical Background Read p and complete The Anglo- Saxon Period Handout.

20 Around 600 B.C... Celts occupied British Isle  Pics  Welsh  Irish A.K.A Britons & Gaels

21 Where did they live? Britons lived on the larger island, now known as Britain Britons lived on the larger island, now known as Britain Gaels lived on the smaller island, now known as Ireland Gaels lived on the smaller island, now known as Ireland see p. 13 in textbook see p. 13 in textbook

22 Britons & Gaels (Celts) Spoke different languages Spoke different languages Mainly farmers Mainly farmers Used iron tools Used iron tools Lived in hut villages Lived in hut villages Many tribal wars Many tribal wars

23 Celtic Religion “Pagan” religion “Pagan” religion Worship of trees & nature Worship of trees & nature Druids were priests in charge of Druids were priests in charge of –Rituals –Prayers –sacrifices

24 Julius Caesar “Conquers” Britons 55 B.C. 55 B.C. Julius Caesar claimed victory Julius Caesar claimed victory Named it Britannia Named it Britannia Went back to Rome Went back to Rome No real Roman presence for next 100 years. No real Roman presence for next 100 years. Caesar’s battle records 1 st historic record of England Caesar’s battle records 1 st historic record of England

25 Roman Emperor Claudius Invaded “Britannia” in 43 A.D. Invaded “Britannia” in 43 A.D. Set up camps across the entire area Set up camps across the entire area Roman rule lasted 300 years Roman rule lasted 300 years Prosperous time for the island Prosperous time for the island

26 Roman Contributions to Britain Roads Roads –Well-paved –Highway system connecting much of the island

27 More Roman Contributions: Architecture Architecture –Meeting halls –Law courts –Temples –Amphitheaters –Public baths

28 Romans Leave in 407 A.D. Roman troops recalled to Rome Roman troops recalled to Rome Rome was under attack from other European tribes Rome was under attack from other European tribes Left Britannia vulnerable for attack Left Britannia vulnerable for attack

29 Anglo-Saxon Invasion Comprised of 3 groups Comprised of 3 groups –Angles –Saxons –Jutes Conquered Brittany Ca. 441 A.D. Conquered Brittany Ca. 441 A.D.

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31 Anglo-Saxon Life By 600 A.D. Britannia became “Angleland” and later England By 600 A.D. Britannia became “Angleland” and later England Anglo-Saxons were excellent seafarers and agricultural people Anglo-Saxons were excellent seafarers and agricultural people Women had very defined domestic roles Women had very defined domestic roles

32 Anglo-Saxon Life Old English is the common language Old English is the common language Tribal wars common Tribal wars common Pagan religion Pagan religion Organized tribal hierarchy Organized tribal hierarchy

33 Anglo-Saxon Pagan Beliefs Wyrd (fate) determined their destiny Wyrd (fate) determined their destiny To attain immortality you must be Remembered after death for what you did on Earth To attain immortality you must be Remembered after death for what you did on Earth –Scop can help you attain immortality

34 Christian vs. Pagan Beliefs God Determines Destiny God Determines Destiny Immortality through salvation Immortality through salvation Worship 1 God Worship 1 God Wyrd (fate) determines destiny Wyrd (fate) determines destiny Immortality= remembrance Immortality= remembrance Worship many gods Worship many gods

35 Christian vs. Pagan Beliefs Beowulf was originally told by a Pagan scop, but first written down by a Christain scribe, probably a priest. Beowulf was originally told by a Pagan scop, but first written down by a Christain scribe, probably a priest. It ends up being a blending of both Pagan and Christian beliefs. It ends up being a blending of both Pagan and Christian beliefs.

36 Anglo-Saxon Gods 3 Days of our week are named for Anglo-Saxon Pagan gods 3 Days of our week are named for Anglo-Saxon Pagan gods –Tuesday = Tiu –Wednesday = Woden –Friday= Fria

37 Conversion to Christianity 597 A.D. St. Augustine of Canterbury arrives in Kent 597 A.D. St. Augustine of Canterbury arrives in Kent Converted King Ethelbert Converted King Ethelbert Strategy: convert Anglo-Saxon kings who would then convert people Strategy: convert Anglo-Saxon kings who would then convert people By 650 A.D. most of England is Christian By 650 A.D. most of England is Christian

38 Christianity’s Importance Advanced literacy—how? why? Advanced literacy—how? why? Influenced literature— how? why? Influenced literature— how? why?

39 Anglo-Saxon Tribal Hierarchy King King Lord a.k.a. “loaf ward” (guardian of the bread) Lord a.k.a. “loaf ward” (guardian of the bread) Earl--ruling warlords w/sworn allegiance to king Earl--ruling warlords w/sworn allegiance to king Freeman—Earl gave churl freedom & enough land for churl’s family Freeman—Earl gave churl freedom & enough land for churl’s family

40 Anglo-Saxon Tribal Hierarchy (cont.) Churl (serf)- servants who work the land in exchange for military protection, food, shelter. Cannot be a warrior. Churl (serf)- servants who work the land in exchange for military protection, food, shelter. Cannot be a warrior. Thrall (slaves)—military prisoners or undesirable Thrall (slaves)—military prisoners or undesirable

41 See Princess Bride Clip Princess Bride Princess Bride You killed my father; prepare to die!

42 Wergild Was the Way of Life Word means “man price” Word means “man price” Heroic code to avenge wrong you or your kin suffered at the hands of enemy. Heroic code to avenge wrong you or your kin suffered at the hands of enemy. Avenge in 2 ways Avenge in 2 ways –Enemy pays you gold or land –You kill enemy or whatever vengeance you deem necessary

43 Comitatus: the Warrior’s Code Comitatus—Latin term for the mutual loyalty between a king and his knights Comitatus—Latin term for the mutual loyalty between a king and his knights Warriors pledged to protect and defend their lord at any cost, even their very lives. Warriors pledged to protect and defend their lord at any cost, even their very lives. The chief fought for victory, the followers fought for the chief. The chief fought for victory, the followers fought for the chief.

44 Comitatus: the Warrior’s Code On battlefield, disgrace for chief to be surpassed by his followers On battlefield, disgrace for chief to be surpassed by his followers Disgraceful for warrior if king dies and warrior doesn’t—meant a life of infamy and shame Disgraceful for warrior if king dies and warrior doesn’t—meant a life of infamy and shame

45 Is Comitatus still alive today? The Patriot clip Scene # 25

46 The Mead Hall Drink Mead Drink Mead Eat Eat Sleep Sleep Planned War Planned War Entertain Entertain

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48 Check out 13 th Warrior

49 Anglo-Saxon Scop Poet performers Poet performers Sing/chant for hours Sing/chant for hours Accompanied by harp Accompanied by harp Oral literature, not written Oral literature, not written

50 Why was the Scop such an important member of Anglo-Saxon society?

51 Characteristics of Anglo- Saxon Poetry Alliteration—repetition of initial consonant sound Alliteration—repetition of initial consonant sound Caesura—mid-line pause Caesura—mid-line pause Rhyme or syllables not important Rhyme or syllables not important Formal pattern of word stresses Formal pattern of word stresses Kennings—poetic use of 2 nouns to name something Kennings—poetic use of 2 nouns to name something

52 Characteristics of Anglo- Saxon Poetry Alliteration—repetition of initial consonant sound Sally sells seashells by the seashore Round the rugged rock the ragged rascal ran

53 Characteristics of Anglo- Saxon Poetry Caesura—mid-line pause all the graybeards whispered together all the gray beards, whispered together

54 Characteristics of Anglo- Saxon Poetry Kennings—poetic use of 2 nouns to name something gray beards she-wolf heaven’s candle

55 End of Anglo-Saxon Era Anglo-Saxon society peeks in 8 th Century Anglo-Saxon society peeks in 8 th Century c.a. 793 A.D. Danish/Viking Invasions c.a. 793 A.D. Danish/Viking Invasions 1066 Battle of Hastings ended Anglo-Saxon England and Anglo- Norman England begins 1066 Battle of Hastings ended Anglo-Saxon England and Anglo- Norman England begins


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