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What have we been learning?

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Presentation on theme: "What have we been learning?"— Presentation transcript:


2 What have we been learning?
Where did English come from? What have been the major influences on our language? What was Anglo-Saxon life like? What’s a hero?

3 Today’s Questions What is an epic? Who wrote Beowulf?
Can you define syntax

4 Literary Vocabulary Beowulf

5 Kenning… What is a kenning? Where would I find one?
Book definition: Metaphorical compound words or phrases substituted for simple nouns. (2 or more words that take the place of 1 noun) Where would I find one? Beowulf

6 Kenning… Give me an example. -“Shepherd of evil” for Grendel
“Folk-king” for Beowulf “Battle-flasher” for sword “Candle of heaven” for the sun.

7 Lyric poem… What is a lyric poem? Where would I find one?
A short poem in which a single speaker expresses personal thoughts and feelings. In ancient Greece, they were meant to be sung. In modern times, are characterized by strong, melodic rhythms. Where would I find one? Shakespeare’s sonnets Keats’s odes Can you think of anywhere else? “Seafarer” “Wanderer” “Wife’s Lament”

8 Lyric poem… But it’s better than not being alive from straps Agreed
A Mead notebook and a Bic that click When it’s pushed and a wack beat That’s a track that’s weak That he got last week ‘Cause everybody in the store Was like that’s that heat. He said I right what I see Write to make it right Don’t like where I be I like to make it like The sights on TV Quite the great life So nice and easy See now you can still die from that

9 Caesura… What is a caesura? Where can I find one?
Book definition: a pause dividing a line into two parts. Where can I find one? Beowulf Iliad Aeneid

10 Caesura… Give me an example. An excerpt from Virgil’s Aeneid
Of arms and the man, I sing Who first from the shores of Troy Or… Sing, goddess, the rage of Achilles the son of Peleus. caesura

11 Epic poem… What is an epic poem?
Book definition: A long narrative poem on a serious subject, presented in an elevated or formal style. It traces the adventures of a hero and share some or all of the following characteristics:

12 Epic poem… Hero is a figure of high social status and often of great historical or legendary importance. The actions of the hero often determine the fate of a nation or group of people. The hero performs exceedingly courageous, sometimes superhuman, deeds that reflect the ideas and values of the era. The plot is complicated by supernatural beings or events. The setting is large in scale, involving more than one nation and often a long and dangerous journey through foreign lands. Long formal speeches are often given by the main character. The poem discusses universal ideas, such as good and evil, life and death.

13 Epic poem… Give me an example. Beowulf Iliad Odyssey Aeneid
Paradise Lost

14 Alliteration… What is alliteration? Where can I find it?
Book definition: The repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words used to emphasize certain words, to heighten moods, to establish a musical effect, to unify a passage, and to create meaning. Where can I find it? Poems, speeches, short stories, novels… Beowulf

15 Alliteration… Give me an example. An excerpt from Beowulf
Out from the marsh, from the foot of misty Hills and bogs, bearing God’s hatred, Grendel came,

16 The Anglo-Saxon and Medieval Periods
p discuss Bayeux Tapestry How do you define great literature? How would you paraphrase C.S. Lewis’ quotation Based on the art, quotation, and unit title, what do you think the selections in this unit might be about?

17 P Timeline Select the 3 events you think are most significant and explain why. List these on poster or overhead & discuss.

18 Most important Timeline Events:

19 Historical Background
Read p and complete The Anglo-Saxon Period Handout.

20 Celts occupied British Isle
Around 600 B.C. . . Celts occupied British Isle Pics Welsh Irish A.K.A Britons & Gaels

21 Where did they live? Britons lived on the larger island, now known as Britain Gaels lived on the smaller island, now known as Ireland see p. 13 in textbook

22 Britons & Gaels (Celts)
Spoke different languages Mainly farmers Used iron tools Lived in hut villages Many tribal wars

23 As you read, look for examples. . .
Celtic Religion “Pagan” religion Worship of trees & nature Druids were priests in charge of Rituals Prayers sacrifices As you read, look for examples. . .

24 Julius Caesar “Conquers” Britons
55 B.C. Julius Caesar claimed victory Named it Britannia Went back to Rome No real Roman presence for next 100 years. Caesar’s battle records 1st historic record of England

25 Roman Emperor Claudius
Invaded “Britannia” in 43 A.D. Set up camps across the entire area Roman rule lasted 300 years Prosperous time for the island

26 Roman Contributions to Britain
Roads Well-paved Highway system connecting much of the island

27 More Roman Contributions:
Architecture Meeting halls Law courts Temples Amphitheaters Public baths

28 Romans Leave in 407 A.D. Roman troops recalled to Rome Rome was under attack from other European tribes Left Britannia vulnerable for attack

29 Anglo-Saxon Invasion Comprised of 3 groups Angles Saxons Jutes
Conquered Brittany Ca. 441 A.D.


31 Anglo-Saxon Life By 600 A.D. Britannia became “Angleland” and later England Anglo-Saxons were excellent seafarers and agricultural people Women had very defined domestic roles

32 Anglo-Saxon Life Old English is the common language Tribal wars common Pagan religion Organized tribal hierarchy

33 Anglo-Saxon Pagan Beliefs
Wyrd (fate) determined their destiny To attain immortality you must be Remembered after death for what you did on Earth Scop can help you attain immortality

34 Christian vs. Pagan Beliefs
God Determines Destiny Immortality through salvation Worship 1 God Wyrd (fate) determines destiny Immortality= remembrance Worship many gods

35 Christian vs. Pagan Beliefs
Beowulf was originally told by a Pagan scop, but first written down by a Christain scribe, probably a priest. It ends up being a blending of both Pagan and Christian beliefs.

36 Anglo-Saxon Gods 3 Days of our week are named for Anglo-Saxon Pagan gods Tuesday = Tiu Wednesday = Woden Friday = Fria

37 Conversion to Christianity
597 A.D. St. Augustine of Canterbury arrives in Kent Converted King Ethelbert Strategy: convert Anglo-Saxon kings who would then convert people By 650 A.D. most of England is Christian

38 Christianity’s Importance
Advanced literacy—how? why? Influenced literature—how? why?

39 Anglo-Saxon Tribal Hierarchy
King Lord a.k.a. “loaf ward” (guardian of the bread) Earl--ruling warlords w/sworn allegiance to king Freeman—Earl gave churl freedom & enough land for churl’s family

40 Anglo-Saxon Tribal Hierarchy (cont.)
Churl (serf)- servants who work the land in exchange for military protection, food, shelter. Cannot be a warrior. Thrall (slaves)—military prisoners or undesirable

41 See Princess Bride Clip
You killed my father; prepare to die!

42 Wergild Was the Way of Life
Word means “man price” Heroic code to avenge wrong you or your kin suffered at the hands of enemy. Avenge in 2 ways Enemy pays you gold or land You kill enemy or whatever vengeance you deem necessary

43 Comitatus: the Warrior’s Code
Comitatus—Latin term for the mutual loyalty between a king and his knights Warriors pledged to protect and defend their lord at any cost, even their very lives. The chief fought for victory, the followers fought for the chief.

44 Comitatus: the Warrior’s Code
On battlefield, disgrace for chief to be surpassed by his followers Disgraceful for warrior if king dies and warrior doesn’t—meant a life of infamy and shame

45 Is Comitatus still alive today?
The Patriot clip Scene # 25

46 The Mead Hall Drink Mead Eat Sleep Planned War Entertain


48 Check out 13th Warrior

49 Anglo-Saxon Scop Poet performers Sing/chant for hours
Accompanied by harp Oral literature, not written

50 Why was the Scop such an important member of Anglo-Saxon society?

51 Characteristics of Anglo-Saxon Poetry
Alliteration—repetition of initial consonant sound Caesura—mid-line pause Rhyme or syllables not important Formal pattern of word stresses Kennings—poetic use of 2 nouns to name something

52 Characteristics of Anglo-Saxon Poetry
Alliteration—repetition of initial consonant sound Sally sells seashells by the seashore Round the rugged rock the ragged rascal ran

53 Characteristics of Anglo-Saxon Poetry
Caesura—mid-line pause all the graybeards whispered together all the gray beards, whispered together

54 Characteristics of Anglo-Saxon Poetry
Kennings—poetic use of 2 nouns to name something gray beards she-wolf heaven’s candle

55 End of Anglo-Saxon Era Anglo-Saxon society peeks in 8th Century
c.a. 793 A.D. Danish/Viking Invasions 1066 Battle of Hastings ended Anglo-Saxon England and Anglo-Norman England begins

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