Presentation on theme: "The Anglo-Saxon Period"— Presentation transcript:
1The Anglo-Saxon Period Strength and Honor: A Heroes JourneyBritish LegendsThe Anglo-Saxon PeriodTheme: Heroes and Heroism
2Do Now:What are your prior experiences with epics? What is an "epic"? What is a "hero"?
3Proto Indo European Indo-Iranian Greek Albanian Latin Balto-Slavic CelticGermanicBalticSlavicWelshBretanGælicSanskritIranianRomanianFrenchSpanishPortugueseItalianRussianUkrainianCzechSlovakSerb-CroatianLatvianLithuanianHindiBengaliPersianKurdish
4Where did the Anglo-Saxons come from? Between 800 and 600 B.C., two groups of Celts from southern Europe invaded the British Isles.Brythons (now spelled “Britons”) settled on the largest Island, Britain.Gaels, settled on the second largest island, known to us as Ireland.skt.org.uk
5The Celts farmers and hunters organized themselves into clans clans had fearsome loyalty to chieftainslooked to priests, known as Druids, to settle their disputesmeekon5.blogspot.com
6Where did the Anglo-Saxons come from? Roman conquest of Britain AD 43Britain annexed as a province in the Roman EmpireDifficult to control such a large piece of landBrought Christianity to Britain around AD 300Pagan vs. Christian themes throughout; never fully indoctrinated at this timeThe last Romans left around 407 A.D.Needed to defend against rebelling European countries; England left to its own devices
8Roman Gatehouse in Britain Arbeia online-archaeology.co.uk, aquariusguesthouse.info
9Where did the Anglo-Saxons come from? 449AD 3 Germanic tribes (Angles, Saxons, and Jutes) invade.Destruction of Roman influence, including ChristianityNew land: “Angle-land”- small tribal kingdoms- no written language- supported themselves through farming and hunting
10Anglo Saxon King and Warrior early 7th century essentialnormanconquest.com
14The Reemergence of Christianity 596AD: attempt to convert Anglo- Saxons to Christianity597AD: Saint Augustineconverted King Ethelbert of Kent to Christianity.set up a monastery in Canterbury in Kent.650AD: most of England is Christian; some hold on to previous beliefsThe church provided counsel to quarreling rulers in efforts to unify the English people.At this time, the British Isles were not unified and included separate kingdoms with separate rulers. They fought continuously over the fertile, green landRoman Cleric St. Augustine, (not the early Christian Church father) arrived in southeast England
15Constant Conflict 9th Century: Norway invaded Northumbria (Anglo-Saxon kingdom in northern and central England), Scotland, Wales, and Ireland.The Danes of Denmark targeted eastern and southern England
16Do Now:What two groups of Celts, from southern Europe, invaded the British Isles?
17Alfred the Great King of Wessex 871-899 866—resisted Danish intrusion and earned “the great” titleSaxons acknowledged Danish rule in East and NorthDanes respected Saxon rule in SouthEnd of 10th Century—Danes want to widen DanelawForced Saxons to select Danish Kings1042—Kingship returned to Alfred the Great’s descendent EdwardEdward the Confessor died in His death led to the end of the Anglo-Saxon Period.
18Literature of Anglo-Saxon Times 2 major influences1) Germanic Traditions of the Anglo-Saxons2) Christian Traditions of the Roman Church
191) Germanic Traditions of the Anglo-Saxons Germanic language– Mixture of various Germanic dialects + Old English– Old English (often looks like a foreign language)
20Page of Beowulf manuscript in Old English Listen to me!
21Heroic Ideals Dominate Warrior culture– Poems and stories depict a society like the Anglo-Saxons• Military and tribal loyalties• Bravery of warriors• Generosity of rulersOral tradition - Scop– Songs and stories often sung and told about the valiant struggles of heroic warriorsMore than just entertainment – provided a model for living and a form of immortality they could aspire toNote: all of these provided the foundation for early written literature in Old English
22Anglo-Saxon Literature cont. Anglo-Saxon poetry falls mainly into two categories:Heroic poetry – recounts the achievements of warriorsElegiac poetry – laments the deaths of loved ones and the loss of the pastBeowulf is the most famous example of heroic poetry.
23Sutton Hoo Burial site discovered in 1939 Important links to Anglo-Saxon world and BeowulfRemains of a boat were discovered and large burial chamber containing numerous artifactsArtifacts suggest a distinctly Christian element intermingled with pagan ritual.
24Epic Elements Epic Element Definition As seen in … Epic Hero Quest the central character of an epic. This character is a larger-than-life figure, typically of noble or semi-divine birth, who pits his courage, skill, and virtue against opposing, often evil, forces. Questa long, dangerous journey or mission undertaken by the epic hero. The quest is the hero’s opportunity to prove his heroism and win honor and undying renown.Valorous deedssomething that is done or accomplished, by being courageous, valiant, and brave.Divine intervention In many epics, the hero receives help from a god or another supernatural force who takes an interest in his quest.Great events Important events from the history or mythology of a nation or culture often provide the backdrop for the epic narrative.
25EpicUnknown authorThe national epic of England (first work to be composed in English)A long heroic poem, about a great legendary warrior renowned for his courage, strength, and dignity.
26The Epic Hero Defeats his enemies using A man of high social status whose fate affects the destiny of his peopleThe Epic HeroDefeats his enemies usingPhysical strengthSkill as a warriorNobility of characterQuick witsIs not modest – boasting is a ritualEmbodies the ideals and values of his peopleIs eager for fameBecause the Germanic tribes believed death was inevitable, warriors sought fame to preserve the memory of their deeds after death
27Heroic Values in Beowulf Relationship between king and his warriorsThe king rewards his warriors with giftsIf a kinsman is slain, obligation to kill the slayer or obtain payment (wergeld) in compensation
28Courage in BeowulfAll the warrior can do is meet every challenge fearlessly, increasing his own reputation.When he dies - renowned for his bravery.There are a lot of cowards in Beowulf…or, if that's a little harsh, people who aren't willing to live by this fatalistic code of honor.Courage - the foundation of the warrior culture that underlies the story of Beowulf.a true warrior's bravery comes from a completely fatalistic attitude toward life and indifference to death.Someday, he will die and be defeated. Everything happens as God wills it.
30Are Modern Super Heroes Epic? Using the profile provided to your group and your own prior knowledge fill out the epic hero cycle chart for the super hero, then answer the question at the bottom of the page using the chart to back up your opinion.
31Characters Danes Geats Places: Dane Monsters Herot Geats Monsters HrothgarUnferthDane MonstersGrendelGrendel’s MotherGeatsBeowulfWiglafHygelacEcgtheowGeats MonstersDragonPlaces:Herot
32The Beowulf Poet Christian; reflects established tradition Allusions to the Old TestamentBeowulf is a Redeemer who is sent by God to save man from sin:Christ archetype: Correspondences between Beowulf’s death and the death of ChristThe price of salvation is life itselfPagan; fate and human will, offerings to gods/shrines, come to aide.
33Conflict Christian Values and Heroic Values This tension is at the heart of the poemPagan history and myth are made to point to a Christian moralBeowulf is poised between two value systems
34Mix of pagan and Christian Values Fate vs. choice of good and evilMythological monsters vs. references to God and Jesus
35Ralph Waldo Emerson said that, "A hero is no braver than an ordinary man, but he is braver five minutes longer.”Do you agree or disagree with his statement and why? Are heroes just ordinary men who do something when other men have already given up?