Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Features of the Reign of the First Ten Sultans At Süleyman I’s death in 1566 the Ottoman Empire had already lasted for more than 200 years. This made.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "The Features of the Reign of the First Ten Sultans At Süleyman I’s death in 1566 the Ottoman Empire had already lasted for more than 200 years. This made."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Features of the Reign of the First Ten Sultans At Süleyman I’s death in 1566 the Ottoman Empire had already lasted for more than 200 years. This made the Ottomans almost unique among the Muslim empires. Both the Abbasid Caliphate and the Anatolian Seldjukides reigned more than two hundred years but it cannot be said that they really ruled for the length of time. At Süleyman I’s death in 1566 the Ottoman Empire had already lasted for more than 200 years. This made the Ottomans almost unique among the Muslim empires. Both the Abbasid Caliphate and the Anatolian Seldjukides reigned more than two hundred years but it cannot be said that they really ruled for the length of time. Yet the Ottomans in 1566 had ruled for two hundred years in full power and were to continue for centuries thereafter. Yet the Ottomans in 1566 had ruled for two hundred years in full power and were to continue for centuries thereafter.

2 One reason for that Ottoman success was the slow development of the Empire. They first conquered but later surely spent time for the consolidation of the enlarging empire. One reason for that Ottoman success was the slow development of the Empire. They first conquered but later surely spent time for the consolidation of the enlarging empire. Another reason was the existince of a number of neighboring decaying Christian powers and the lack of an overlord Muslim empire. Their conquests were for their own expanding state. What they took, they kept. Another reason was the existince of a number of neighboring decaying Christian powers and the lack of an overlord Muslim empire. Their conquests were for their own expanding state. What they took, they kept.

3 A third reason was their military ability to adapt to changing circumstances. The Ottoman sultans led a nomad army as long as it furthered their ambitions, then they converted it to a combination of a professional army of slave soldiers equipped largely with firearms and the traditional forces of the Turcoman notables. Later sultans whose nomadic ancestors had never seen the sea became masters of the eastern Mediterranean. A third reason was their military ability to adapt to changing circumstances. The Ottoman sultans led a nomad army as long as it furthered their ambitions, then they converted it to a combination of a professional army of slave soldiers equipped largely with firearms and the traditional forces of the Turcoman notables. Later sultans whose nomadic ancestors had never seen the sea became masters of the eastern Mediterranean.

4 This third reason can be mainly explained by two approaches of the Ottoman administration: ecclecticism and pragmatism. This third reason can be mainly explained by two approaches of the Ottoman administration: ecclecticism and pragmatism. Through civil war, military defeat, political conflict and even the deposition of sultans, the Ottoman system of reule survived. Through civil war, military defeat, political conflict and even the deposition of sultans, the Ottoman system of reule survived. The sultans and their administrators were not great innovators. They were leaders who observed carefully the administrative systems of the earlier or existing states and adopted them to their needs. None of the cornerstones of the new state, whether it be the system of slave-soldiers – devşirme army and administrators, the timar system was unique to them. The sultans and their administrators were not great innovators. They were leaders who observed carefully the administrative systems of the earlier or existing states and adopted them to their needs. None of the cornerstones of the new state, whether it be the system of slave-soldiers – devşirme army and administrators, the timar system was unique to them.

5 The Ottomans owed a lot to the Great Seldjukides and Anatolian Seldjukides. Both of these states had tried to create a state that synthesized the vigour of Turcoman nomads and trhe administrative culture of the great tradition of Persian-Islamic statecraft. Unlike these earlier Turcoman states, the Ottomans were not forced to create a system of government. The Turcoman-Islamic- Persian system of the Seldjukides was already there, awaiting refinement. The Ottoman did refine it, particularly by incorporating governmental traditions of the Byzantine Empire. The Ottomans owed a lot to the Great Seldjukides and Anatolian Seldjukides. Both of these states had tried to create a state that synthesized the vigour of Turcoman nomads and trhe administrative culture of the great tradition of Persian-Islamic statecraft. Unlike these earlier Turcoman states, the Ottomans were not forced to create a system of government. The Turcoman-Islamic- Persian system of the Seldjukides was already there, awaiting refinement. The Ottoman did refine it, particularly by incorporating governmental traditions of the Byzantine Empire.

6 The other basis of Ottoman success, an approach closely tied to ecclecticism, was pragmatism. The Ottoman sultans did what had to be done for the welfare and success of the state, even when the rules seemed to stand on their way. The Ottoman sultans were supposed to be the heroes of Islam. They paid attention to giving public evidence of being good Muslims. Yet they did not hesitate to deviate from Islamic rules when it seemed necessary. The best example of this is the child-levy system which recruited the slave soldier and administrators, devşirme. Enslaving Christians who had not rebelled against Muslim rule was not allowed by the Islamic law, nor was forceful conversion of the children. The other basis of Ottoman success, an approach closely tied to ecclecticism, was pragmatism. The Ottoman sultans did what had to be done for the welfare and success of the state, even when the rules seemed to stand on their way. The Ottoman sultans were supposed to be the heroes of Islam. They paid attention to giving public evidence of being good Muslims. Yet they did not hesitate to deviate from Islamic rules when it seemed necessary. The best example of this is the child-levy system which recruited the slave soldier and administrators, devşirme. Enslaving Christians who had not rebelled against Muslim rule was not allowed by the Islamic law, nor was forceful conversion of the children.

7 In much the same manner, the Ottomans used Christian vassal kings to enlarge their conquering armies and even gave timars to Christian nobles, bring those who might otherwise have rebelled into their camp. Bayezid I used Turcoman Muslim fighters to attack in Christian Europe and Christian vassal troops to attack in Muslim Anatolia. In much the same manner, the Ottomans used Christian vassal kings to enlarge their conquering armies and even gave timars to Christian nobles, bring those who might otherwise have rebelled into their camp. Bayezid I used Turcoman Muslim fighters to attack in Christian Europe and Christian vassal troops to attack in Muslim Anatolia. The Ottoman sultans used also a mixture of warfare, marriage, fear and diplomacy to overwhelm the Turcoman principalities in Anatolia. The Ottoman sultans used also a mixture of warfare, marriage, fear and diplomacy to overwhelm the Turcoman principalities in Anatolia. They also introduced the millet system allowing the religious communities great autonomous power over their peoples. They also introduced the millet system allowing the religious communities great autonomous power over their peoples.

8 Ottoman elite household (kapıkulu) cavalry with the vassal Crimean Tatar cavalry (at right flank) at the siege of Szigetvar in 1566 Ottoman elite household (kapıkulu) cavalry with the vassal Crimean Tatar cavalry (at right flank) at the siege of Szigetvar in 1566

9


Download ppt "The Features of the Reign of the First Ten Sultans At Süleyman I’s death in 1566 the Ottoman Empire had already lasted for more than 200 years. This made."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google