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THE MUSLIM GUNPOWDER EMPIRES. Organizational Questions 1. Which state governs the largest empire? Most multicultural? most populous? 2. How would the.

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Presentation on theme: "THE MUSLIM GUNPOWDER EMPIRES. Organizational Questions 1. Which state governs the largest empire? Most multicultural? most populous? 2. How would the."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE MUSLIM GUNPOWDER EMPIRES

2 Organizational Questions 1. Which state governs the largest empire? Most multicultural? most populous? 2. How would the answers above make government difficult? 3. Which empire is nearest to Western Europe? 4. How would proximity to Europe affect an empire? 5. What modern states does each empire rule? 6. Which state would be the most dependent on sea power? Why? 7. Which state would be the easiest and the most difficult to defend? Why?

3 What were the similarities & differences between the three Muslim empires? OTTOMAN -Anatolia Peninsula, Europe & Nth Africa -religious fervor & zeal for Islamic conversion -mostly Muslim, large Christian minority -Sunni Muslim SAFAVID -Persia (Iran) -religious fervor & zeal for Islamic conversion -mostly Muslim -Shi’ia Muslim MUGHAL -Northern India -rule pre-dominantly non-Muslim population SIMILARITIES - origins in in Turkic nomadic raiders of Central Asia based on military conquest - oriented to support armies & military classes using firearms - effective use of firearms and siege warfare - ruled by a disputed succession of absolute monarchs -court rituals patterned after those of earlier Islamic dynasties -Taxed conquered peoples heavily DIFFERENCES -Sunni (Ottoman and Mughal) v. Shi’ia (Safavid) enmity meant warring over territory & -persecuting adherents of rival brand of Islam - leads to varying religious practices, legal codes & social organization

4 Background

5 By 1100 CE The Seljuk Turks control much of the old Abbasid Empire

6 By 1294 IL-KHAN (part of the Mongol Empire) has captured much of the Seljuk Turk Empire along with Persia

7 As the Mongol Empires Rapidly Decline, new Muslim Empires will Fill the Vacuum. They are the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal (Gunpowder Empires )

8 OTTOMAN EMPIRE

9 Ottomans Turkic peoples enter Anatolia after Mongols Ottomans secure dominance 14 th & 15 th centuries move into Balkans 1453 capture Constantinople - end Byzantine Empire navy dominates Mediterranean rule much of Middle East, Nth Africa & SE Europe threat to Western Europe

10 military leaders had dominant role Ottomans geared to war & expansion Turkic horsemen are warrior aristocracy - power shrinks as central bureaucracy grows - build up regional power bases mid 1400s army dominated by Janissary infantry divisions controlled artillery & firearms - intervened in dynastic succession disputes

11 Sultans “played off” competing factions - religious & legal scholars - Muslim, Christian & Jewish merchants Christians & Jews “people of the book” empire grows – Sultans lose contact with people vizier gains great power problems with imperial succession – weakens empire

12 Constantinople - restored combines different cultures under Ottoman rule Hagia Sophia becomes a grand mosque Suleymaniye (Blue) mosque commercial center for Asia, Africa & Europe urban = many artisans & guilds - government regulates - guilds important 17 th century – Turkish language artistic legacy in poetry, ceramics, carpets & architecture

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14 Ottoman Decline late 17 th century – empire too big to be maintained begin to decline once acquisition of new territory ends - conquest state bureaucracy corrupts oppressed peasants flee or rebel Sultans & sons become weak & lazy rulers civil strife increases, military decreases Janissaries block military reform - lose ground to European rivals

15 1571 – navy loses at Battle of Lepanto, lose control of eastern Mediterranean Portuguese naval victories break Muslim dominance in Indian trade loss of commercial revenue made worse by inflation from input of New World bullion major changes occurring in Europe not matched by Ottomans conservatism of Janissaries & religious leaders block innovation

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17 SAFAVID EMPIRE

18 Shi’ite challenge of the Safavids Safavids profit from struggles of rivals after Mongol invasions Safavids were Shi’ite Muslims from a family of Sufi mystics early 1300s – fought to purify & spread Islam Ismail followers conquer most of Persia fight Ottomans – lose at Chaldiran in 1514 Shi’ism blocked from westward advance

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20 Politics & War under the Safavids empire at top under Abbas I (1587-1629) brought Turkic warriors under control - some of the leaders gain government posts and pose a threat to Shahs Persians recruited into bureaucracy as a counterbalance recruit slave youths into army & bureaucracy - become backbone of army - monopolize firearm use

21 State & Religion Persian language takes hold - use Persian traditions of court etiquette militant Shi’ite ideology modified by Persian religious scholars religious teachers receive state support teaching in mosque schools supervised by state empire gradually converts to Shi’a Islam - becomes integral part of Iran

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23 Abbas I wants empire to be major center of international trade & Islamic culture internal transport improved workshops created (silk & carpets) trade encouraged building mosques in Isfahan Demise of Safavid Empire no heirs to Abbas I internal strife & foreign invasions 1722 fall to Afghani invaders

24 Ottoman vs. Safavid both dominated by warrior aristocrats who shared power with monarch warriors gradually leave for estates where they ruled peasants both encouraged growth of crafts & trade Safavids less market-oriented than Ottomans women socially disadvantaged in both -sub-ordinate to fathers & husbands -basically homebound

25 MUGHAL EMPIRE

26 Mughal Empire Babur & Turks invade India 1526 - only wanted booty - remained when prevented from returning north used military tactics similar to Ottomans within 2 years held much of Indus & Ganges plain Babur’s death in 1530 brought invasion, successor flees to Persia - re-invade & restore control by 1556

27 Akbar (Babur’s grandson) defeats enemies great military & administrative talent reconciles with Hindu subjects - encourages intermarriage - abolishes head taxes - respects Hindu religious customs invents a faith incorporating Islam & Hinduism to unify subjects Hindu & Muslim warrior aristocracy granted land & labor for loyalty

28 attempts to introduce social changes to benefit regulate consumption of alcohol improve position of women prohibited sati encouraged widow remarriage discouraged child marriages most reforms not successful powerful empire in 1600s yet most of population live in poverty

29 cotton textiles world famous Shah Jahan – Taj Mahal - blend Persian & Hindu traditions fall behind Europe in invention & sciences 17 th century rulers continued policy of tolerance towards Hindus these rulers left daily administration alone – wives win influence life of court women improves position of women in the rest of society declines lack of opportunity, burden of dowry - birth of a girl an inauspicious event

30 Mumtaz Mahal

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32 imperial decline early 1700s – Aurangzeb - wants to control all of India - rid Islam of Hindu influence warfare drains treasury ruler spends too much time on war internal revolt religious policies increase internal weaknesses Hindus kept from highest government posts -head tax restored state revenues & power passes to regional lords - previous pattern in South Asia

33 What were the similarities & differences between the three Muslim empires? OTTOMAN -Anatolia Peninsula, Europe & Nth Africa -religious fervor & zeal for Islamic conversion -mostly Muslim, large Christian minority -Sunni Muslim SAFAVID -Persia (Iran) -religious fervor & zeal for Islamic conversion -mostly Muslim -Shi’ia Muslim MUGHAL -Northern India -rule pre-dominantly non-Muslim population SIMILARITIES - origins in in Turkic nomadic raiders of Central Asia based on military conquest - oriented to support armies & military classes using firearms - effective use of firearms and siege warfare - ruled by a disputed succession of absolute monarchs -court rituals patterned after those of earlier Islamic dynasties -Taxed conquered peoples heavily DIFFERENCES -Sunni (Ottoman and Mughal) v. Shi’ia (Safavid) enmity meant warring over territory & -persecuting adherents of rival brand of Islam - leads to varying religious practices, legal codes & social organization

34 What were the causes of Ottoman decline in the 17 th century? long decline reached limits of expansive power early on too large to be maintained new conquest possibilities run out – lands begin to be lost to Ottoman Christian & Muslim enemies decline of effectiveness of administrative system corruption of officials oppressive demands of local officials & land owners leads to rebellions succession not thought out well weak rulers, addicted to pleasures viziers gain too much power imperial apparatus geared to strong, military leaders, decline in sultans hurts whole empire

35 What were the similarities & differences in the decline of the Abbasid & Ottoman empires? succession problems imperial extravagance declining position of women too much construction peasants over taxed long decline

36 Compare & contrast the social & economic organization of the Ottomans & Safavids. dominated by warrior aristocracy warrior elite become land-owners with peasants under them real power of rulers decreases demands of landlord class on peasants grows invasion, rebellions, banditry, peasant flight from land handicraft production & trade encouraged public works projects women disadvantaged difference: Ottoman had better trade contacts & were farther ahead in technology

37 Discuss the reasons for the failure of the Mughal Dynasty after Akbar needed reforms ignored bureaucracy bloated & corrupt army behind in weaponry & tactics too many building projects – peasants standard of living dropping Aurangzeb wants to expand empire & convert Hindus less tolerance imperial system becomes overextended internal rebellions no temples allowed to be built head tax re-instated rulers extravagant & pleasure seeking

38 What weaknesses were common to all of the Muslim empires? succession problems imperial central power weakens power of regional aristocracy grows failure to adapt Western military & scientific advances rulers better at conquests than administration rulers too interested in pleasure seeking too much building peasants not taken care of

39 Discuss the similarities in the causes for decline in all of the Islamic early modern empires & explain how the decline was related to the rise of the West. social organization dependent on warrior nobility – granted control over villages & peasants imperial central power weakens – power of regional aristocracy grows failure of all empires to take the west seriously as an international challenger meant a failure to adopt Western military technology & scientific advances all empires vulnerable to Western advances – especially Ottomans (shared land borders) all suffered from growing Western dominance of the seas by 18 th century all reduced to economic dependency loss of revenue from commerce & impact of Western bullion contributed to Islamic decline

40 Discuss the similarities in problems confronting both the early modern Muslim empires & the earlier Umayyad & Abbasid empires. SIMILARITIES all failed to establish firm succession process dominance by warrior aristocracy made things difficult problems with religious minorities (Mughal/Hindu) DIFFERENCES Umayyads & Abbasids commercial supremacy unchallenged by west West didn’t present an intellectual challenge to earlier empires later rise of West revised relations with Islamic world loss of commercial leadership, West breaks Muslim monopoly with Africa & WE Asia Western technology threatens Muslim independence


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