2 The powhiri is a ritual of encounter between: The host people and the visitorsThe rituals clears away any tapu barriersAll who take part are under the protection of the maraeThe visitors show respect by giving support (koha) and being careful to keep to the values and practices of the host peopleWe informally use the powhiri ceremony when we invite someone into our home. Before we allow them access we establish the reason for their visit. If we are happy with the purpose of the visit we offer hospitality and enjoy the exchange of knowledge and information. The values of each party are upheld and respected
3 Present in Powhiri is Tapu and Noa Acknowledges the sacred/spiritual to land, to people, to atua (god)The protection of and maintenance of boundaries as they apply within the tikanga (protocols) of iwi, hapu and whanau. Including people, places, actions.Acknowledgement of all involved in process, including those who have been involved in the past
4 What is tapu? What is noa?The dual concept of tapu (sacred) and noa (free from tapu) regulated and constricted every facet of Maori lifeTapu is a positive force, associated with life, immortality, masculine objects and women of the highest rank.Noa allowed things to become normal
5 Kawa, Tikanga and Powhiri When conducting powhiri it is necessary to consider some comcepts:Kawa (boundaries)Kawa polices a practice. It serves to ensure that the outcome intended is achieved through a minimum standard of practice that aligns itself to the cultures philosophy and view of the worldTikanga (Practices)Tikanga implies that there is a correct way to do things that involves priority based on past observations or whakapapa that helped qualify and quantify the ‘correctness’ of the said practice
7 KA TAE MAI NGA MANUHIRIThe visitors arrive at a given time and will wait outside the gate or main entrance until leaders of the group decide when to move forward in readiness to be called onto the marae. When the visitors hear the call from the kai karanga on the marae atea, they will as a tight group move forward.
8 Usually women are in the front and the middle of the group and men follow behind. Before stepping onto the marae, the mauhiri should have organised who will speak and in what order . The koha will be given to the last speaker and also the women will have a song ready to add relish to their speakers.
9 Usually a young male of the local group performs the challenge to the visitors. It is a non verbal test of the visitors movtives, to determine whether they come in peace or war. The type of challenge varies depending on occasions. These days this part of the powhiri is only performed on special occasions.
10 Ka wero te kaiweroA warrior will come out to assess the intentions of the visitorsHe will be the ‘best’ warriorHe will issue a challengeHow the challenge is responded to will indicate the guests intentions
12 Ka karanga te kaikaranga The women on the tangata whenua (host) side will call to the guestsThe women on the visitors side will respond to the hosts and the manuhiri start their entrance onto the maraeThe kaikaranga (caller) is the first speaker. She represents the very best of female speakers where women do not speak on the marae atea.A woman from the tangata whenua calls to the manuhiri and upon hearing the karanga the manuhiri begin to advance on to the marae atea. At this point of the welcome, the visitors become tapu. The karanga is normally answered by a woman in the visiting group. There tribal differences eg in Ngapuhi many tribes is is usually the men that reply.
13 During the karanga the manuhiri advance slowly towards the wharenui (meeting house) Once the group reaches the area approximately twenty metres in front of the house they pause and bow their heads for about a minute to acknowledge those who have passed awayThis ackowledgement would also have been in the karanga.
14 Haka PowhiriOn special occasions you will see a haka powhiri welcome the guests.
15 Ka korero te kaikorero The men stand and speak The whaikorero is usually opened with a tauparapara (chant) and is followed by mihimihi (traditional greetings) acknowledging the followingLandWharenuiThe deadThe people presentThe reason for gatheringthis part of the process is about removing tapu and initiating the start of kotahitanga
16 Ka korero te kaikoreroAfter each speaker the rest of the whanau stand and sing a waiata tautoko(supporting song)
18 Ka hongi tetahi ki tetahi After the whaikorero and waiata there is an opportunity to lay down your koha (gift)Following this, everyone greets each other. The hongi.
19 Ka kaitahiTo completely break the tapu and bring about kotahitanga everyone shares kai (food) together
20 Powhiri and nga atua Maori Tumatauenga governs the kawa of weroPapatuanuku, Hineahuone and Hine titama hold the kawa of the karangaTane te wananga and Tu te ihiihi influence the kawa of whaikoreroTawhirimatea, tane mahuta and Tumatauenga hold the kawa of the marae ateaRongomatane hold the kawa of the whare tipunaTahu, Hinenuitepo and Rongomaraeroa govern the kawa of kai hakari
21 Roles and Roleplayers Kia Karanga: The caller – call of welcome Whaikorero – The orator speech of welcomeKai Waiata – The singer Complementary chants or songsTangi – expression of emotion, sorrow, grief, joyKokiri take – initating projects and action, addressing issuesWhakatara – stirring, being accountable and holding people to what they say they will doKarakia – PrayerMahi kai – The gathering of foodWhakapai marae –The tidying of the maraeExpression of manaakitanga.Roles and Roleplayers
22 Tapu and NoaTapu implies the presence of supernatural power (whether good or evil) and attracts attention and respect,Noa implies the absence of such power and attracts neither attention nor respect.Tapu also stands for danger, restrictions on freedom of actionNoa on the other hand, is safety, freedom from restriction, and relaxed, outgoing warmth.Durie states tapu is about restrictions to prevent accidents, calamities, or misfortune. Noa is used to denote safety. Laws of tapu is described as a function of social control , that is great on marae where most of the activities and behaviours are sanctioned by rules.The whole marae complex is tapu in relation to the outside world. That is why we have rules regarding behaviour what you can and cannot do.