Presentation on theme: "Gene Expression. 100% (extremely unlikely for a violence gene) Example: If you have the gene for free ear lobes you will definitely have free ear lobes."— Presentation transcript:
100% (extremely unlikely for a violence gene) Example: If you have the gene for free ear lobes you will definitely have free ear lobes. yes no
More common Expression depends On environment Example: If you have genes to be tall, but grow up without adequate nutrition you may not be tall at all. So if you had a violence gene but grew up in an environment that encourages peaceful behavior your violence gene might never go into action.
On other genes Example: Some people don’t have a particular disease even though they have the gene for it because the presence of certain other genes prevents the disease from being active. Maybe there are “peace genes” or other genes that influence the violence gene and prevent violent behavior
Conflicting Viewpoints: The Violence Gene Scientist 1 says: When a car cuts in traffic, what makes some drivers shrug their shoulders and others fume with road rage, bashing the horn or worse? Scientists have found that it's the "warrior gene," a controversial name for a genetic variation. Research has shown this gene has an ugly side tied to violence, risk taking and aggression. The warrior gene is found in one-in-three western men. Studies have linked the variant to gambling, gang membership and weapon use.
Harvard University researcher Rose McDermott did an experiment to test a group of men for vengeful behavior. A group of men were put to the test by an actor who was hired to treat them poorly, then steal money that the men had been promised. Several of the men in the experiment expressed interest in revenge, and many of them had the genotype that seems to be a factor for violence.
But having the gene alone is not enough to predict a violent personality. The gene must be linked with a history of childhood trauma, she said. "Child abuse, sexual abuse, sexual assault as a child...Things that were related to severe parental abuse, neglect, absence, illness, drug abuse, alcoholism in the family when you're young," McDermott said.
But even with that combination -- the gene variant plus childhood trauma -- there is not a guarantee that someone will be violent. There can be choice.
Scientist 2 says: Rose McDermott’s experiment claims to support the idea that the warrior gene predicts behavior. But her study does not provide strong enough evidence. Her study examined 70 subjects, half of whom carried the so-called “warrior gene.” The researchers found that 75 percent of the warrior gene carriers "meted out aggression" when cheated—but so did 62 percent of the non-carriers. Moreover, when subjects were cheated out of smaller amounts of money, "there was no difference" between the two groups.
In 2007, researchers reported that the warrior gene was less common among Caucasians (34%) and Hispanics (29%) but even more common among Africans (59%) and Chinese (77%). Obviously, the warrior gene cannot possibly live up to its name. If it did, the whole world — and China in particular—would be wracked by violence.
A 2009 study claimed that males with the gene are more likely to report being gang members. But this study also showed that the vast majority of gene carriers are not gang members. In fact, about (and) 40 percent of the gang members were not gene carriers.
Unsupported claims about human genetics can have real-world consequences. Racists use warrior gene research as evidence that blacks are innately more violent than whites. In 2010, a Tennessee man was on trial for hacking and shooting a woman to death in a drunken rage. His lawyers urged a jury to show him mercy because he carried the warrior gene. The jury believed this "scientific" argument and convicted the man of manslaughter rather than murder. A prosecutor called the "warrior gene" testimony "smoke and mirrors." He was right.
Task: Answer the questions with your partner. In a complete sentence, explain your answer choice (A is best because …) Make inferences: use your background knowledge along with text Watch out for distracters—choices that seem reasonable or are in the text but don’t answer the question