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Japan: Kamakura & Warring States 11 1185 -1600 CE.

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Presentation on theme: "Japan: Kamakura & Warring States 11 1185 -1600 CE."— Presentation transcript:

1 Japan: Kamakura & Warring States 11 1185 -1600 CE

2 Kamakura: A New, Less Gentle Japan Gempei Wars: Taira vs Minamoto clans 1158-1185 AD

3 Kamakura: A New, Less Gentle Japan Shogun: (pronounced show goon) Minamoto Yoritomo Officially the Emperor’s Military Leader In Reality the Emperor’s Military Overlord New leadership rejects the effete culture of Heian

4 Kamakura Bakufu (tent government) Military might and military virtues win the day for Kamakura Focus on Military Virtue New government center at Kamakura Away from emperor’s court at Heian Kamakura Period Samurai Warrior

5 Kamakura Bakufu Government: Lord-Retainer System Patron provides leadership, resources, and membership in a protective group Client reciprocates with loyalty, obedience and service –Example: Godfather (the movie) Japan’s system fits the patron-client pattern: Except: The Emperor-Shogun link is only a facade

6 Kamakura Bakufu Government: Lord-Retainer System Shogun’s government structure: Classic Patron-client, or Lord-retainer system –Shogun accepts allegiance (oaths of loyalty) from lesser lords –Each lord supported by corps of samurai retainers who swear allegiance to him. –Lords provide leadership and resources –Retainers provide military service, loyalty, and obedience to their lord

7 Samurai Culture: Emergence of Bushido Bushido: the way of the warrior Japan’s “chivalry” code –Discipline –Loyalty –Self-cultivation Martial arts, philosophy, and literary arts Painting representing the Gempei Wars

8 Samurai Culture: Emergence of Bushido Loyalty is the core virtue of Bushido During Kamakura period loyalty may not have been as absolute Lords paid retainers with grants of land from their han (domain or fief) Samurai became independent landowners with financial incentives separate from the interests of their lord During times of severe stress the clash between ideological loyalty and financial interest becomes obvious

9 Samurai Culture: Emergence of Bushido Bushido: Japan's code of chivalry Emphasis on loyalty and self cultivation Different values system from European chivalry Unlike European chivalry –No concept of special place for women –No “gentlemanly” respect for, protection of, or deference to the “weaker” sex Kamakura Samurai Armor

10 Bushido Culture Strong sense of responsibility Ritualistic and formal Seppuku: –Ritual suicide to accept responsibility for grievous error

11 Samurai Weaponry:Swords Bow and Arrow –Also Spears For mounted samurai

12 Kamakura: Japan under attack Mongol invasions: –1274 & 1281 Divine Winds: or Kamikaze save Japan at the last moment

13 Kamakura Period Continues: 1281-1467 Remaining 200 years of Kamakura Japan relatively stable 1467 Kamakura system collapses into Civil War Major lords battle for dominance and power

14 Warring States Period: 1467-1568 CE 100 years of civil war Changes in Bushido and lord-retainer system Dramatic changes in social structure Change in economic structure

15 Changes in Lord-retainer System & Bushido Early on Samurai retainers rewarded with land –Creates incentive to protect personal property –To preserve property for heirs –Ideological commitment to LOYALTY conflicts with self interest –Self-interest often wins –Samurai not always loyal

16 Changes in Lord-retainer System & Bushido By the end of Warring States: –Samurai paid with stipends – not land –Stipends only paid so long as lord and lord’s estate remain intact –Samurai’s ideological loyalty reinforced by financial self interest –Loyalty becomes far more absolute

17 Changes in Lord-retainer System & Bushido 0nly 200 Daimyo (great names) remain All surviving Daimyo swear allegiance to new Shogun Daimyo: Japan’s feudal Lords from 1600s forward Han: The autonomously governed fief or domain of a Daimyo

18 Social and Economic Change War with Swords, Bows, and Spears Siege tactics Castles emerge Castle towns Japan Urbanizes

19 Castle Towns and Urbanization New Castle towns Produce markets –Merchants –Cash-crop agriculture

20 Castle Towns and Urbanization Service sector develops Craftsmen –Sword smiths –Blacksmiths ArtisansArtistsEducationEntertainers –Geisha –Kabuki Theater –No Puppet Theater

21 Arts Kabuki Theater Wood block printing No Puppet theater

22 Warring States Results Japan as a nation of cities –Castle –Market Towns built around castles Japan developing formal arts Japan’s Bushido culture aligning ideas of loyalty with reality of financial self-interest Strong military ethic dominates culture

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