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Camelot and the New Frontier: The Kennedy Years. A presidential election that results in defeat of the party in power usually indicates the failure of.

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Presentation on theme: "Camelot and the New Frontier: The Kennedy Years. A presidential election that results in defeat of the party in power usually indicates the failure of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Camelot and the New Frontier: The Kennedy Years

2 A presidential election that results in defeat of the party in power usually indicates the failure of the party in power to have dealt effectively with the nation’s problems, rather than indicating the positive appeal of the winning candidate and his party platform. Assess the validity of this generalization with reference to TWO of the elections in which the party in power was defeated: 1912, 1920, 1932, 1952, 1960, (80) A presidential election that results in defeat of the party in power usually indicates the failure of the party in power to have dealt effectively with the nation’s problems, rather than indicating the positive appeal of the winning candidate and his party platform. Assess the validity of this generalization with reference to TWO of the elections in which the party in power was defeated: 1912, 1920, 1932, 1952, 1960, (80) Describe and account for changes in the American presidency between 1960 and 1975, as symbolized by Kennedy’s “Camelot”, Johnson’s “Great Society” and Nixon’s Watergate. In your answer, address the powers of the presidency and the role of the media. (03B) Describe and account for changes in the American presidency between 1960 and 1975, as symbolized by Kennedy’s “Camelot”, Johnson’s “Great Society” and Nixon’s Watergate. In your answer, address the powers of the presidency and the role of the media. (03B)

3 I. The 1960 Election: Nixon vs. Kennedy (after long, brutal primary between JFK + LBJ (including accusations of Addison’s and possibility of death in office)) I. The 1960 Election: Nixon vs. Kennedy (after long, brutal primary between JFK + LBJ (including accusations of Addison’s and possibility of death in office))

4 The Issues: Foreign Policy Nixon: Contends that "American prestige is at an all-time high," thanks to the efforts of the Eisenhower administration. Contends that "American prestige is at an all-time high," thanks to the efforts of the Eisenhower administration.Kennedy: Citing a loss of prestige, declares that America needed a more activist and imaginative approach to international affairs. Citing a loss of prestige, declares that America needed a more activist and imaginative approach to international affairs.

5 The Issues: Economy Nixon: Urges economic growth through a combination of private enterprise and individual initiative. Urges economic growth through a combination of private enterprise and individual initiative.Kennedy: Calls for increased government intervention to stimulate the economy. Calls for increased government intervention to stimulate the economy.

6 The Issues: Defense Nixon: Asserts that the U.S. has maintained military standing with the Soviet Union, and that military spending should be watched carefully for excess Asserts that the U.S. has maintained military standing with the Soviet Union, and that military spending should be watched carefully for excessKennedy: Argues that a "missile gap" favoring the Soviet Union makes an increase in defense spending necessary Argues that a "missile gap" favoring the Soviet Union makes an increase in defense spending necessary

7 Issues: Other Kennedy’s Catholicism (servant to the Pope?) Kennedy’s Catholicism (servant to the Pope?) America’s spiritual and cultural malaise (indefinite feeling of uneasiness) America’s spiritual and cultural malaise (indefinite feeling of uneasiness) JFK’s image = vigor, glamour, etc. JFK’s image = vigor, glamour, etc. Skillful in his use of media, especially TV (first televised debate: radio vs. TV) Skillful in his use of media, especially TV (first televised debate: radio vs. TV)

8 Election Results Hotly contested: very close Hotly contested: very close Kennedy wins by 113,000 out of 68 million castKennedy wins by 113,000 out of 68 million cast Claims of voter fraud Claims of voter fraud Illinois, TexasIllinois, Texas Nixon publicly claims that he will not contest for “good of nation” Nixon publicly claims that he will not contest for “good of nation” Has others file lawsuits, write articles, etc.Has others file lawsuits, write articles, etc. Pattern he (+ others) will use later in PresidencyPattern he (+ others) will use later in Presidency Swift Boat Vets for Truth Swift Boat Vets for Truth AARP is gay-loving troop-haters AARP is gay-loving troop-haters

9 Kennedy the Cold Warrior McCarthy era vision (Dems soft on communism)  Kennedy über-Cold Warrior—stronger than Eisenhower (missile gap) McCarthy era vision (Dems soft on communism)  Kennedy über-Cold Warrior—stronger than Eisenhower (missile gap)  Bay of Pigs and escalation in Vietnam  Bay of Pigs and escalation in Vietnam Would he have continued?Would he have continued?

10 “Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and the success of liberty.” “Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and the success of liberty.”

11 II. Soviet-American Tensions JFK an ardent Cold Warrior, but over time displayed caution/ pragmatism JFK an ardent Cold Warrior, but over time displayed caution/ pragmatism Alliance for Progress (LA Marshall Plan; “peaceful revolution”) & Peace Corps (1961) Alliance for Progress (LA Marshall Plan; “peaceful revolution”) & Peace Corps (1961) Build pro-USA nations in Third World + counterinsurgency (Green Berets) to defeat revolutionaries: Congo (1960+1), Brazil (1964; ITT and Joao Goulart; Nixon + ITT and Allende 1974) Build pro-USA nations in Third World + counterinsurgency (Green Berets) to defeat revolutionaries: Congo (1960+1), Brazil (1964; ITT and Joao Goulart; Nixon + ITT and Allende 1974) Few successes; aid goes through native elite  resent attempt to impose US models Few successes; aid goes through native elite  resent attempt to impose US models

12 JFK test ban to halt nuclear proliferation (1963) JFK test ban to halt nuclear proliferation (1963) JCS: test behind the moonJCS: test behind the moon Arms race accelerates: largest, fastest defense buildup in peace time Arms race accelerates: largest, fastest defense buildup in peace time JFK increase nuclear weapons by 150% (1964)JFK increase nuclear weapons by 150% (1964) Accepts Berlin wall (1961) to avoid war: “a wall is a hell of a lot better than a war” Accepts Berlin wall (1961) to avoid war: “a wall is a hell of a lot better than a war” “I am a jelly donut!”“I am a jelly donut!” But not really But not really

13 III. Bay of Pigs Invasion (1961) JFK cont. Ike’s plan for exile invasion JFK cont. Ike’s plan for exile invasion Invasion quickly falters (no air support) Invasion quickly falters (no air support) Key: Cubans not support exiles Key: Cubans not support exiles Compare IraqCompare Iraq In response, Castro moves closer to USSR  JFK vow topple Castro In response, Castro moves closer to USSR  JFK vow topple Castro US seen as weak, anti-LAUS seen as weak, anti-LA CIA’s Op Mongoose (sabotage, assassination) CIA’s Op Mongoose (sabotage, assassination) JCS plan for invasion JCS plan for invasion

14 IV. Cuban Missile Crisis (Oct. 1962) Castro: Soviet help deter US Castro: Soviet help deter US Khrushchev: missiles will deter invasion, improve USSR position in arms race (missile gap), improve USSR position LA Khrushchev: missiles will deter invasion, improve USSR position in arms race (missile gap), improve USSR position LA When U-2 reveal missiles, JFK rejects quiet diplomacy  demands removal of missiles When U-2 reveal missiles, JFK rejects quiet diplomacy  demands removal of missiles Some suggest air strike; JCS want full invasion Some suggest air strike; JCS want full invasion JFK: naval quarantine JFK: naval quarantine

15 Announce it on TV; put military on high alert Announce it on TV; put military on high alert After days of brinkmanship, a compromise After days of brinkmanship, a compromise Secret deal: USSR remove Cuban missiles; USA pledge no invasion & remove Turkey missiles Secret deal: USSR remove Cuban missiles; USA pledge no invasion & remove Turkey missiles Still debate on JFK’s actions during crisis: McNamara; JFK caused crisis; impact VietnamStill debate on JFK’s actions during crisis: McNamara; JFK caused crisis; impact Vietnam After crisis, Test Ban Treaty (1963); hot line After crisis, Test Ban Treaty (1963); hot line Tensions in Europe cool, but Cold War continue in arms race & Third World (Vietnam) Tensions in Europe cool, but Cold War continue in arms race & Third World (Vietnam) New book: Cuba  JFK et.al. create theory of uberCommunists  Papa Doc in Haiti, Trujillo in Dominican RepublicNew book: Cuba  JFK et.al. create theory of uberCommunists  Papa Doc in Haiti, Trujillo in Dominican Republic

16 V. Domestic Policies New Frontier: Reps & conservative Dems stall it in Congress (lack of mandate) New Frontier: Reps & conservative Dems stall it in Congress (lack of mandate) JFK put less effort into domestic issues: pushed to Civil Rights by RFK JFK put less effort into domestic issues: pushed to Civil Rights by RFK BUT: extension Social Security, water pollution, expansion + increase min. wage, free trade, reform welfare (decrease dependence), Area Redevelopment, tax cuts (Keynesian demand- side) BUT: extension Social Security, water pollution, expansion + increase min. wage, free trade, reform welfare (decrease dependence), Area Redevelopment, tax cuts (Keynesian demand- side) Despite few legislative successes, JFK able to inspire idealism (Peace Corps, moon mission) Despite few legislative successes, JFK able to inspire idealism (Peace Corps, moon mission) Assassination  Johnson, CRM, Great Society (achievement Kennedy goals +) Assassination  Johnson, CRM, Great Society (achievement Kennedy goals +)


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