4Main Ideas of the Middle Ages: FeudalismChristianity/ CrusadesChivalryPlagueWar
5VocabularyAny thing from the Middle Ages is considered to be Medieval.Examples:Medieval CastleMedieval Knight
6The Early Middle AgesBy A.D. 500, the Roman Empire had fallen apart. Historians call the 1000 years following the fall of Rome the Middle Ages. These years are in the middle between the fall of Rome and the rebirth of learning in Europe in the 1500s.During the Middle Ages, the eastern part of the old Roman Empire grew strong as the Byzantine Empire, but the western part broke into many parts and fell into decay.
7The Early Middle AgesThe fall of Rome brought important changes to Western Europe. Germanic tribes slowly moved south and took over Roman lands. People did not obey Roman laws any longer. Roman soldiers could not keep order.For 500 years there had been one Roman Empire. Now hundreds of little kingdoms took its place. These kingdoms had no system for collecting taxes and rulers had no money for a government
8Also called the “Dark Ages” Why?Not much emphasis onThoughtGovernmentArtPhilosophy
9The Early Middle AgesFrom about 500 to 1000, the region was a frontier land (underdeveloped area on the outskirts of a civilization with vast natural resources). Dense forests flourished in the north. Beneath the earth’s surface lay mineral resources, and the seas and rivers provided fish, energy, and trade routes.
10The Early Middle AgesBetween 400 and 700 A.D., Germanic tribes carved western Europe into small kingdoms, the most successful of which was that of the Franks. They began a civilization that later developed into the modern countries of France, Germany, and Italy. In 481 A.D., a warrior named Clovis united the Franks and became their king. He made Paris his capital. He was the first Germanic king to become a Roman Catholic.
11The Early Middle AgesWhile Germanic peoples conquered western Europe, Muslims from the Middle East won victories in the area around the Mediterranean Sea. They conquered North Africa and Spain but were defeated in France at the Battle of Tours. European Christians viewed Muslims with hostility and fear, but gained knowledge from them.To the Muslims, Europe was backward, unorganized, carried no strategic importance and was essentially irrelevant. This considering the time period was in fact true. Nevertheless the Catholic Church (which at the time was the strongest institution in Europe) successfully convinced Christian Europe that the Muslims were infidels. This caused Europeans to think that Muslims were culturally inferior to Europe and thus Europe was unable to benefit from the new scientific discoveries being made in the Islamic lands before the 1100’s. By doing this Europe kept itself in the Dark Ages while from China to Spain Islamic Civilization prospered. Cordoba was the capital of Muslim Spain. It soon became the center for all light and learning for the entire Europe. Scholars and students from various parts of the world and Europe came to Cordoba to study. The contrast in intellectual activity is demonstrated best by one example: ‘In the ninth century, the library of the monastery of St. Gall was the largest in Europe. It boasted 36 volumes. At the same time, that of Cordoba contained over 500,000!’. Muslims not only passed on Greek classical works but also introduced new scientific theories, without which the European Renaissance could not have occurred. Thus even though many of the Islamic contributions go unacknowledged, they played an integral role in the European transformation.
12The Early Middle AgesIn 800 A.D., one Frank king became strong enough to unite all of Western Europe. His name was Charlemagne, or Charles the Great. One of history’s great kings/curious, driven, intelligent, strong warrior, devout Christian/ was illiterate, but strongly supported learningRuled from 768 to 814/ Expanded the Frankish kingdom into Carolingian empire = covered much of western & central Europe
13Charlemagne Reunites most of the western empire He defeated the other Germanic tribes and united them into one kingdom,Spreads ChristianityThe pope Leo III crowned him “Emperor of the Romans.”
14The Early Middle AgesCharlemagne tried to create a united Christian Europe and to revive Latin learning. He also established a school at Aachen (Germany), where the scholar Alcuin set up a Latin-type curriculum in which students studied grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy.
15The Early Middle AgesCharlemagne appointed powerful nobles to rule local regions. He gave them the land so they could offer support and supply soldiers for his armies. To keep control of these rulers, he sent out officials called missi dominici to check on roads, listen to grievances, and see that justice was done.
16Charlemagne’s EmpireBut then, his kids screw it up…
17Charlemagne’s EmpireBut then, his kids screw it up…
18The Early Middle AgesHis rule brought law and order back to Western Europe, but less than 30 years after his death in 814, his empire broke apart and civil war began. New invaders threatened his kingdom. In 843, his grandsons drew up the Treaty of Verdun, which split the empire into three regions: Lothair in Italy, Louis the German in Bavaria, and Charles the Bald in Aquitaine.
20Muslims invaded southern France Magyars settled on the plains of HungaryVikings (Norsemen of Scandinavia) attacked the empireVikings were superb warriors & shipbuilders/ famed dragon ships carrying about 50 men could go shallow rivers to attack inland9th century, Vikings settled in Europe911, Frankish king gave Vikings land of Normandy
21No strong, centralized rule Is this a good thing?Why would you want a ruler anyway?What does a government provide for you?Here’s a hint…
23Europe under attack! Magyars from the East And the biggest threat came from the North, the VikingsMuslims from the South
24The Early Middle AgesOne of the invaders that attacked Charlemagne’s empire was the Vikings, which came from northern Europe. They were sailors who built excellent ships. Viking explorers traveled to Russia, all across Europe and to America. They were not just destructive raiders, but also traders and explorersFrom Denmark, Sweden and Norway. Their ships could sail on shallow rivers and deep oceans. They set up colonies on the islands of Iceland and Greenland
26The Early Middle AgesAround the year 1000, a Viking named Leif Eriksson landed on and island northeast coast of North America. He called it Vinland… today Newfoundland!In 1964, the United States Congress authorized and requested the President to proclaim October 9 of each year as "Leif Erikson Day". That date was chosen for its connection to the first organized immigration from Norway to the United States, not for any event in the life of the explorer.Statue of Leif Eriksson in Duluth, Minnesota
27The Early Middle AgesAfter the Romans left Britain in the fifth century, different Germanic tribes invaded the island (Angles, Saxons, and Jutes). They destroyed and invaded. In 1016 A.D., a Viking named Canute became the ruler of England. In 1042 A.D., Edward the Confessor, an Anglo-Saxon, became king.From Denmark, Sweden and Norway. Their ships could sail on shallow rivers and deep oceans. They set up colonies on the islands of Iceland and Greenland
29Feudalism and the Manor Economy After the fall of the Roman Empire, a new political and military system arose based on the holding of land. It was called feudalism and it evolved in response to invasions by Vikings, Muslims, and Magyars. Under the feudal system, the king (lord) owned all the land, he gave it to nobles (lord), who could then give the land to other people (vassals) and ask for their loyalty. The land given to the vassal was called fief and peasants farmed it.This was done in a special ceremony where the vassal knelt down before the lord and promised loyalty.
30FeudalismInvaders posed a threat to the safety of the people due to decentralized governmentPeople began to turn landed aristocrats or nobles for protection/ led to feudalismFeudalism arose between / similar system in Japan- SamuraiVassalage = center of feudalism/ came from Germanic society where warriors swore oath to their leaderVassal = man who served a lord militarily
32Feudalism Knights = heavily armored warriors Male = armor made of metal links or platesFrankish army initially set up foot soldiers in mailHeavily armored knights dominated warfare for over 500 yearsKnights had great prestige & formed much of European aristocracyEarly Middle Ages ( ) wealth was based on owning land/very little tradeNobles gave a piece of land to vassals in exchange for fighting = fief
33FeudalismVassals had political authority in their fief/in charge of keeping orderFeudalism became complicated = kings had vassals who had vassalsFeudal contract = unwritten rules that characterized feudalism/relationship between king & vassal/knights for about days a yearVassals were to advise the lord, financial obligations to the lord, knighting of his eldest son,Lord supported the vassal with land grant & protection in military & court
34Feudalism and the Manor Economy To protect the fief, each vassal needed his own soldiers, but sometimes money was scarce so the vassal would offer land, dividing it into smaller and smaller pieces.Only the son of a noble could become a knight. At the age of seven, a boy was sent away to learn to fight and ride.At 7, he learned religion, manners, obedience, and loyalty. By 15, he learned to ride a horse and use weapons. By 21, he became a knight.
35Feudalism and the Manor Economy During the long winter nights, the lord and his guests drank and sang. They also held tournaments, contests between knights. A lord would invite knights from the surrounding area to enter contests of fighting skill. Two knights in armor would ride toward each at full speed and try to knock the other off his horse. The tournaments were as dangerous as real battles.
37Feudalism and the Manor Economy Noblewomen played active roles in the warrior-society. While the husbands or fathers were off fighting, the “ladies of the manors” took over their duties. They supervised vassals, managed the household, and perform necessary agricultural and medical tasks. The daughters of the nobles were sent to friends for training: they were expected to know how to weave and spin and how to supervise servants.
38Feudalism and the Manor Economy Once a lord knighted a squire in a special ceremony, the knight would adopt a code of conduct called chivalry: the knight promised to defend the church, to be loyal to the lord, protect the weak, and be polite to women. Chivalry placed women in a pedestal. Troubadours, or wandering poets, adopted the view of chivalry and their love songs praised the perfection, beauty and wit of women.
39Feudalism and the Manor Economy The whole feudal system was based on the control of land. A manor was that part of the fief that peasants farmed to support a lord’s family. A manor was self-sufficient because the people who lived on it grew, raised, or made nearly everything that they needed. The majority of the people who lived during the Middle Ages were peasants; a few were free, but most were serfs (they were not slaves, but bound to the land), no one could buy or sell them
40Feudalism and the Manor Economy Men, women, and children serfs worked on the manor farms from early in the morning until late at night. They did the farmwork, cut wood, and built fences. The men planted with his wife along next to him. Children helped plant seeds, weeded, and took care of pigs or sheep. At night, the family and any animals slept together in their one room hut.
42The Medieval ChurchDuring the early Middle Ages, the Church’s most important achievement to Christianize the diverse peoples of Western Europe. Missionaries were sent to spread their faith among Germanic tribes. Women also spread the faith by marrying pagan kings and bringing the into the Church. Clothilde, the wife of Clovis (king of the Franks), persuaded him to accept Christianity.
43Role of the ChurchChristianity became main religion of Roman empire by 4th centuryRoman church developed a system of organizationPriests was head of parishes – local communitiesBishop was head of diocese - a group of parishes or bishopricArchbishop – head of groups of dioceseBishop of Rome became known as Pope – the head of what is now known as the Roman Catholic Church
45Roman Catholic ChurchPope claim was based on the belief that Jesus gave Peter the keys to HeavenPeter was considered to be the chief apostle & the first bishop of RomeBishops who succeeded Peter were called popes = Latin word for “papa” – fatherWestern Christians accepted the pope as the church’s leader, but could not agree on the pope’s powersGregory I strengthened power by taking political control of Rome & surrounding territories
46The Medieval ChurchIn manor villages, the priests of the parish was the only contact people had with the Church. The priests celebrated the mass and administer the sacraments (the sacred rites of the Church). Christians believed that faith in Christ and participation in the sacraments would lead them to salvation.The church was a social center. Peasants gossiped or danced. Later on, priests ran schools.
47The Medieval ChurchTo support the parish, the Church required Christians to pay a tithe, or tax equal to a tenth of their income. The Church taught that men and women were equal before God, but on Earth, women were viewed as “daughters of Eve,” weak and easily lead into sin. At the same time, the Church offered a view of the ideal woman, as modest and pure as Mary, the mother of Jesus.
48The Medieval ChurchAbout 530, a monk named Benedict organized the monastery of Monte Casino in southern Italy. He drew up a set of rules to regulate monastic life: monks lived in monasteries and nuns lived in convents. Under the Benedictine Rule, monks and nuns took three vows: obedience to the abbot who headed the monastery or convent, poverty, and chastity or purity. Each day was divided into periods of worship, work, and study.Benedictines spent their lives praying and working. Some took care of the sick and the homeless. Some learned new things about farming and taught farmers who lived nearby. Some welcomed travelers, especially Christian pilgrims traveling to holy shrines
50Role of ChurchMonks meditated & read privately/ They prayed together seven times a dayAll aspects of Benedict life was communalAbbot (father) ruled each Benedictine monasteryMonks spread Christianity throughout Europe/Irish & English monks were enthusiastic missionaries
51The Medieval ChurchMonasteries and convents also performed a vital role in preserving the writings. Monks and nuns copied by hand books from the past to make more copies. Over time, the largest monasteries and convents became centers of learning, and the monks and nuns kept learning.Abbey of Monte Cassino,originally built by Saint Benedict,shown here as rebuilt afterWorld War II.
52The Medieval ChurchWomen could not become priests, however, many did enter convents. In the later Middle Ages, the Church put more restrictions on nuns: it withdrew rights that nuns had once enjoyed, such as preaching the Gospel, and placed most independent convents under the control of Church officials. Although women’s role within the Church was limited, they made valuable contributions to their faith.
53Role of ChurchNuns = women who withdrew from the world to dedicate themselves to GodNuns lived in convents headed abbessesAbess Hilda founded a monastery in Whitby in 657 where she educated five future bishops
54The Medieval ChurchThe Church not only controlled the spiritual life of Christians, but gradually became the most powerful secular, or worldly, force in medieval Europe. The pope was the spiritual leader of the Roman Catholic Church… medieval popes eventually claimed papal supremacy. High clergy, such as bishops and archbishops, were usually nobles and they had their own territories. The pope itself held vast lands in central Italy, later called Papal States. Because churchmen were often the only educated people, feudal rulers appointed them to high government positions.The popes had authority over all secular rulers
55The Medieval ChurchThe medieval Church developed its own body of laws, known as canon law, which is a fully developed legal system, with all the necessary elements: courts, lawyers, judges, a fully articulated legal code and principles of legal interpretation. It applied to religious teachings, the clergy, marriages, and morals. Anyone who disobeyed Church law faced a range of penalties, including excommunication, which meant people could not receive the sacraments or a Christian burial. A noble who opposed the Church could face the interdict, an order excluding an entire town, region or kingdom from receiving most sacraments.Even the strongest ruler gave in rather than face the interdict
56The Medieval ChurchWith all the success the medieval Church achieved came many problems: monks and nuns ignored their vows of poverty, the clergy lived in luxury, priests could marry and spent more time on family matters than on Church duties. These trouble times called for reform in the Church.In the early 900s, Abbot Berno of Cluny set out to end abuses: he revived the Benedictine Rule, he declared that the nobles could not longer interfere in monastery affairs, and he filled the monastery of Cluny with men devoted to religious pursuitsCluny is in eastern France. In time, many monasteries and convents copied the Cluniac reforms.
57The Medieval ChurchJewish communities existed across Europe. In their homes, the Jews preserved the oral and written laws that were central to their faith. Jews in Spain were known as Sephardim. Jewish farmers migrated to Western Europe and became known as Ashkenazim.In the late 1000s, Christians persecuted Jews and accused them of being responsible for the death of Jesus. In bad times, antisemitism, or prejudice against Jews, worsened: Christians blamed Jews for things they could not understand, such as illness or famine. The Jews moved to Eastern Europe were rulers welcomed the newcomers’ skills and knowledge.Sephardim was the Hebrew word for Spain. Ashkenazim means German Jew. The Church forbade Jews from owning land or practice most occupations. Yet popes and rulers still turned to educated Jews as financial advisers and physicians.
58Economic Expansion and Change By 1000, Europe’s economic recovery was well underway. Farming changed because of five inventions: the three-field system, the harness for horses and horseshoe, iron plows, the waterwheel, and the windmill. Under the three-field system , a lord left one third of his fields unplanted each year, allowing the soil to rest. Then the field produced more food when the serfs planted it a year later. In 300 years, the population of Europe doubled.From 1000 to 1300
59The Change from Manor Life to the Growth of Towns
60Causes of the growth of towns The use of horses instead of oxen.Oxen are big and slow.Horses plow much faster.People could plow twice as much.RESULTS……
64What is the final result? Because of horses and the 3-field system, there was more food, MORE FOOD MEANS……People become HEALTHIER=People LIVE LONGER=MORE BABIES=INCREASED POPULATION=NEED MORE PLACES TO LIVE=THE GROWTH OF TOWNS
65Economic Expansion and Change Europe’s growing population needed goods that were not available on the manor: peasants needed iron for farm tools, wealthy nobles wanted fine wool, furs, and spices from Asia. As foreign invasions and feudal warfare declined, traders crisscrossed Europe to meet the growing demand for goods. Traders and their customers did business at local trade fairs; however, they closed in the fall and the merchants waited during the winter months near a castle. With time these became the first real medieval citiesThe richest cities grew up in northern Italy and Flanders (Belgium), the two ends of the profitable north-south trade route.
66Economic Expansion and Change To protect their interests, the merchants who set up a new town would ask the local lord, or king, for a charter (a written document set out the rights and privileges of the town). In return, merchants paid the lord a large sum of money.As trade revived, merchants had to borrow money to buy goods. The need for capital, or money for investment, spurred the growth of banking houses.
67Rise of FairsSince people no longer lived on a self-sufficient manor, they needed a place to buy and sell their stuff.Most fairs took place outside of the town and the peasants got tired of always carrying their stuff..
68This was too much work so pretty soon the peasants would just stay at the fair and not go back to the manor.
69Growth of Towns What is it like to live in a town? Exciting Crowded DirtyNoisyGarbage everywhere
70But, this is where they want to live!!!!! busy, no bathrooms, nofresh air…….Dirty, smelly, animals in thestreets, fires ………
71Rise of Guilds A guild is almost like today’s UNIONS. They are groups of people with the same job.They controlled what the product was supposed to look like and how much they could charge for the product. It was like quality control for medieval time.Members cooperated to protect their own economic interests. Only members could work in any trade. They provided social services, operating schools and hospitals, and looking after the widows and orphans of their members.
72Economic Expansion and Change To become a guild member meant many years of hard work. At the age of 7 or 8, a child could become an apprentice, or trainee, to a guild master. Most apprentices worked for guild members as journeymen, or salaried workers.Women worked in dozens of crafts and could inherit the workshops of their fathers or husbands, even become guild masters.The apprentice usually spent 7 years learning the trade with no pay, but was given bed and board.In Frankfurt, the guilds were composed entirely of women.Medieval towns and cities were surrounded by high walls
73Economic Expansion and Change To meet the needs of the changing economy, Europeans developed new ways of doing business:Many merchants joined together in an organization known as a partnership, where a group of merchants pooled their funds to finance a large-scale venture.Merchants developed a system of insurance to help reduce business risks.A merchant deposited money with a banker in his home city. The banker issued a bill of exchange, which the merchant exchanged for cash in a distant city.
74Economic Expansion and Change These new ways reshaped medieval society. Feudalism ended. By 1300, most peasants were either tenant farmers, who paid rent for their land, or hired farm laborers, who paid with rent with their labor.A new middle class formed between the nobles and peasants. The clergy and nobles despised the new middle class because they saw them as immoral for making money from usury (lending money at interest)