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The Muslim Empires.

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1 The Muslim Empires

2 Timeline 570 -Muhammad born 632 -Death of Muhammad
Ridda Wars under Abu Bakr Sunnis (backed Umayyad) vs. Shi’a (backed Ali) Umayyad caliphate (Sunnis) (711 –Sind Kingdom of India taken-Muhammad ibn Qasim) 732 -Battle of Tours -Muslims defeated by Charles Martel (France) (3rd civil war) (anger at Umayyad luxurious living). Abbasid- traced heritage from Muhammad’s uncle, al-Abbas (Sunnis who used Shi’a supporters) 750 – Abbasid caliphate begins (victory at the Battle of the River Zab). Abu al-Abbas dinner party-slaughtered Umayyads. Nickname al-Saffah meaning the blood shedder! –Reign of Harun al-Rashid (thousand and one nights) Excesses! 777 -Independent dynasty in Algeria, 788- Morocco, 800- Tunisia 809 -First war between Abbasid princes over succession: after death of Harun, idea of body guards and personal armies developed  846 slaves mercenaries murdered the caliph and ruled through the Abbasid caliph.

3 945- Persian Buyids (Shi’a) capture Baghdad (remember they had advised various Abbasid caliphs). Abbasid rule became weak b/c of slave armies and taxes so independent kingdoms formed in former lands. Called themselves sultans. 1055-Seljuk Turks: (Sunnis) ruled in name of Abbasid caliphs like the Buyids First Christian Crusade, 1099 Jerusalem taken and Muslim/ Jewish inhabitants massacred. 12th century Muslims united under Saladin (Salah-ud-Din) and they reconquered. Last crusader kingdom fell with fall of Acre in 1291 1206 – Delhi sultanate in India –Mahmud of Ghazni (Turkish slave dynasty who seized Afghanistan in 962) led expeditions and Muhammad of Ghur who conquered (assassinated 1206 by Qutb-ud-din Aibak who took power) 1258- Mongols (Hulegu) captured Abbasid capital of Baghdad and killed the 37 caliph. 1260- Ain Jalut-Mongols defeated by Mamluks (Turkish slave army that ruled Egypt) 1281 –Ottoman dynasty founded 1453-Ottomans capture Constantinople

4 1402- Timur the lame’s invasions

5 “The Tiger” Babur became the 1st Mughal emperor of India!
He claimed heritage to rule parts of central Asia from Chinggis Khan (mother’s side) and Timur (father’s side). However, his empire was quite small and realistically they kept losing many battles!  He also lost some lands to the powerful Muslim Safavid dynasty in the early 1500’s! He set his eyes on taking control of northern India which had been controlled by various Muslim dynasties out of Delhi. He was outnumbered 10 to 1, plus the Lodi sultan (Ibrahim) had war elephants! Babur won by using cannons which panicked the elephants causing them to trample their own warriors! He also had superior firepower which allowed him great advantage too. By the end of 1530 Tiger was the ruler of northern India and was the founder of a new dynasty, the Mughal dynasty of India. They ruled various parts of India for some 300 years!

6 Three major Muslim dynasties of this time: Ottoman Empire, the Safavid Empire, and the Mughal Empire
They came to power after the fall of the Mongols and the harsh rule of Timur (power vacuum), they were created by warrior leaders, and were Turkish-speaking nomadic groups. The Mughals were successful because they relied on cannons and muskets whereas other armies were not as skilled yet in that technology! However the Mughals differed in that their conquest were not launched out of religious desires like the Ottoman and Safavid Empires Rival dynasties-sunni and shi’a split Science declined, but art/ architecture flourished! Exchange between the 3 Muslim empires

7 Ottoman Empire (13-14 century)
Prior to the rise of the Ottoman Empire Turkish peoples had played key roles in Abbasid Empire as soldiers and administrators Able to seize power because of the fall of the Seljuk Turks and invasion of Mongols starting in 1243 Eastern Anatolia turned into a chaotic state with warring Seljuk sultans and people fleeing Mongolian raids. One such group, Ottomans, began building a new empire in the western part of the Anatolia. They were named after their leader, Osman. By 1350’s expanded beyond the Bosporus straits and in 1453 Ottoman sultan Mehmed II conquered Constantinople. Pillaged and looted for 3 days! Other sultans extended into Syria and Egypt while also expanding into Europe in the Balkan peninsula and Hungary! Ottomans captured major Mediterranean cities and began to control Mediterranean trade: Rhodes, Crete, and Cyprus were all captured. The Ottomans also drove the Venetians and Genoese from Eastern Mediterranean and even threatened southern Italy with invasion.

8 Fall of Constantinople Mehmed II

9 Great Ottoman leaders Mehmed II ( ) – one of the greatest military geniuses of world history. He consolidated the expansion of the Ottoman Empire in Asia Minor and in 1453 organized the siege of Constantinople. He personally directed the combined land and naval assault and brilliantly improvised the tactics that led to the fall of the city. The fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans was a watershed. Suleiman the Magnificent ( ) {Dynastic Wars of Europe} He entered into an alliance with Francis I of France to control the powers of Charles V of Spain and the Holy Roman Empire. He then captured places like Budapest and and really threatened Europe! The Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559 ended the conflict. The Habsburgs couldn’t dislodge the Ottomans from Hungary while they fueled their New World wars Spain and France declared bankruptcy  Francis I son, Henry II, never forgave his father for abandoning him in France and sought to make Charles V (his jailer pay). He celebrated the treaty as a great victory and had a big feast and entertainment including a jousting tournament in which he died!!!!

10 A State geared to warfare
Importance of military leaders directly affected the economy. A warrior aristocracy developed where warriors were granted control over lands and peasants in order to support their households and military retainers Warrior aristocracy began to compete with religious leaders, administrators, and even the sultan for power (revenue and labor control) mid 15th century imperial forced made up of infantry divisions called Janissaires (many conscripted in conquered areas as adolescents). The boys were legally slaves even though they were well educated and converted to Islam. Some even served in palaces but the majority became Janissaries. (there when Constantinople was sacked) Controlled the artillery and firearms of the Ottoman war machine and became the most powerful component of the military. Began to want political influence and by the 16th century could depose the sultan and name which son would succeed him!


12 Sultans and court Caliph was an absolute monarch, but realistically needed to work with the various fractions within the state and pit them against each other: warrior elite, Janissaries, religious scholars, legal experts, traders- both Muslim and dhimmis [people of the book-Christian and Jewish]. Sultans were often capable rulers who had effective administration and gave tax relief to peoples As wealth and empire grew so too did the sultans lavish lifestyle with many wives and a large harems. The day to day administration was carried out by the large bureaucracy headed by the wazir (vizier). The vizier was the head of the administration and held more real power than the sultan. However, early sultans did like to lead their men into battle! Inherited succession problems like other Muslim empires (vague principles over succession ) This could and did led to warfare! Muhammad’s lack of naming an heir would still plague Muslim empires well into the early modern period

13 Constantinople Restored
After Mehmed II sacked Constantinople in 1453 he then moved to restore the city to its former position of splendor. Specifically the Hagia Sophia. Improved the city via Muslim advancements in architecture. Each sultan created beautiful mosques and palaces like Suleymaniye built by Sulieman (Suleyman) the Magnificent. Schools, hospitals, mansions, rest houses, and gardens were built around the city to make it beautiful Built coffeehouses where men would come to gossip, read, and debate. These men like to smoke tobacco coming out of America. Merchants and artisans were members of guilds and the Ottoman regime regulated business, weights and measurements, and commercial exchange. Language switch from Arabic to Persian to Turkish Ottoman Empire combined European, African, and Asian peoples

14 Problem of Ottoman Decline
The decline of the Ottoman Empire was somewhat slow and went by in stages, however, the Ottoman Empire is a story of great success. The dynasty ruled for more than 600 years!!!! They ruled until the 20th century with internal revolts and pressures from Russia (Crimean War), Austria, Spain, and even the Safavid empires just to name a few. By 17th century the main power of the Ottoman Empire was in decline. As conquest diminished and lands were lost to enemies the Ottomans couldn’t maintain its oversized bureaucracy and military  Corruption followed and local officials began to retain more and more revenue from the sultan  local officials also squeezed the peasants more for labor and taxes which cause peasant rebellions and peasants to flee!  Changed how they treated potential princes where princes were kept like hostages instead of given military and political positions…made them weak and inexperienced  Decline of the caliber of the Ottoman rulers had devastating effects on government…no more warrior/ rulers and the discipline of the government and armies decline while weak rulers gave into the pleasures of the palace: drinking, drugs, and their harems! Battle of Lepanto in 1571 when the Spanish under King Philip II defeated them! Christian victory and marked the beginning of the Ottoman decline in European power politics 

15 Military Reverses Along with the political decline the military began to decline too. The Janissaries didn’t want to give their power up and continued to control artillery and firearms, but failed to develop and keep up with the technology of their European counterparts  West- light field artillery 1571 Battle of Lepanto  -lost power on the sea in Eastern Mediterranean. Still launched an assault into N.Africa to preserve Islam there. Also, the Europeans were increasing ship technologies for Atlantic trade like galleons. Also failed to defeat the Portuguese from the Indian Ocean and the coast of Africa  (worked with Indian allies) Portugal also imported from Africa directly into Portugal and thus cut out the middle man of the Muslim empire. The Ottomans no longer could tax the trade and make their critical revenue because Europeans made direct trade links to Africa and India The economy was only further set into decline because of the large amount of bullion that started to flow into the country from the Americas. The influx of bullion effected all countries including the Ottoman Empire and caused long term inflation in the already slow and declining economy  The idea that what happened in Europe was of little consequence also negative effected the Ottomans. They failed to recognize the revolutionary advances going on in Europe as such the Ottomans didn’t develop a strong country that could resist European dominance 

16 Battle of Lepanto: 2nd painting obviously a Christian perspective!

17 Shi’a Challenge of the Safavids
First years of the 16th century the Safavids founded a dynasty that ruled in modern day Iran restoring the Persian empire. They became the political power, culturally creative, and the center of Shi’ism! (Remember the Buyids from Persia were Shi’a) They were frontier warriors that spread a militant form of Islam. They were also Turkish nomadic peoples who took advantage of the power vacuum created after the Mongols and Timur (much like the Ottomans) Safavids were Shi’a while Ottomans were Sunni!! Sunni – believed the 1st 3 caliphs (Bakr, Umar, and Uthman) vs. Shi’a ( Ali –Mohammad’s cousin/ son-in law succession) Over time the difference between Sunni and Shi’a became much more than just succession, but also doctrine, ritual, and law disagreements! Also, division started within the different sects too The Ottoman vs. Safavid became one of the most sectarian struggles in the history Islam (sectarian = related to sect)

18 Safavid dynasty (Red Heads) were created from Sufi mystics and religious preachers
Sail al-Din (leader and where name comes from) led a militant campaign to reform and spread Islam. Participated in fierce local fighting that killed the first 3 leaders. 1501 victory at Tabriz…Ismail named shah (or emperor) of Safavids The Safavids later conquered Persia and advanced into Iraq. They drove out the Ozbegs (their enemy) and even found success along the Ottoman border with conversion from Sunni to Shi’a! Chaldiran (Aug. 1514) epic battle between the Ottoman Sunni vs. Safavid Shi’a. This was fueled by Safavid persecution of Sunni and borderland support of Shi’a. While the Ottoman sultan called for the open slaughter of all Shi’as in the empire. Ismail’s forces were busy fighting in the east and therefore his full forces weren’t at the battle. While the Ottoman sultan, Selim, had muskets and cannons and his full forces were at the battle. Huge Safavid defeat!!! But the Ottomans were not able to conquer so the Safavid’s recovered. However, Safavid expansion westward stopped along with the expansion of Shi’ism too.

19 Safavid ruler Shah Esmail(Ismail) killing Uzbek leader in battle, 1510

20 Politics and War Under Safavid Shahs
Ismail retreated to his palace after his defeat at Chaldiran to escape…this led to turmoil within the empire  He was overthrown by Shah Tahmasp I ( ) who moved to restore power and check the Turkish chiefs and Ozbegs (which he subsequently did). Shah Abbas I ( ) (the great) was the shah during the height and prosperity of the Safavid empire. He created a warrior nobility out of the Turkish chiefs and allowed them control over villages with peasants providing food and labor for their needs. Powerful warriors also held key posts in the administration. They were seen as a threat so the Safavid leaders started to recruit Persian to work in court and imperial administration. Safavid leaders also start a similar practice to Ottomans with Janissaries. They have a slave army of young boys from southern Russia which they educate and convert. They hold power over firearms in the military and gain power. They begin to also hold political powers over time like the Janissaries. The Safavid also called on Europe for assistance against the Ottomans. The Sherley brothers from England taught the Safavids about cannons and muskets and the Safavids created special slave infantry and a special regiment of musketeers with the knowledge. This helps the Safavids to become stronger and promised security to its people.

21 Shah Abbas I and Isfahan

22 State and Religion-Safavids
Turkish language gave way to use of Persian language. Safavid leaders took on Persian titles like padishah or king of kings Claimed to be divine or Shi’a imams –descents of Ali Shi’a ideology modified to be a pillar of society and was upheld by the state -relied on Persian scholars -Mullahs- state supported mosque leaders who went along with the planned and direct state religion -Holy day of the week=Friday and they had to give sermons cursing the first 3 caliphs each Friday! Most Iranians converted to Shi’ism during the Safavid rule. Safavids also pressured other religions like Christians and Jews to convert. Religion- ideological and institutional support of Safavid dynasty. Religion became part of the Safavid peoples’ identity and culture: had Shi’a religious celebrations and festivals that were only found in Safavid Shi’ism like the pilgrimage to Karbala in Iraq. These difference set Safavid Shi’ims apart for other Arab and Turkish neighbors.

23 Elite Affluence and Artistic Splendor
Safavid rulers built and restored the land and great cities. The greatest patron of art/ architecture/ restoration was Shah Abbas I Shah Abbas I ( ): created great mosques, public bath, gardens, roads, rest houses for merchants/ travelers, and even workshops where manufactured goods like silk and carpets were made. Abbas I also encouraged the economy by making trade and travel safer. He encouraged trade within the Safavid empire and also international trade with India, China, and Europe (Portuguese and later the Dutch and English became increasing familiar in the Persian Gulf and Arabian sea) Abbas I greatest projects were found in his capital at Isfahan.

24 Society and Gender (Ottoman and Safavid)
Both ruled by absolute monarchs and both had warrior aristocracy along with powerful slave armies! In both societies the demands by the warrior aristocracy on peasants created many problems and abuses. This led to banditry, peasant uprisings, and peasants fleeing. Both dynasties established imperial workshops were products like weapons, rugs, and silks were manufactured. Both created policies to encourage international trade. The Ottomans here proved more successful in the short run because they had more access (location and people with overseas trade links). The Safavid economy was not as developed as the Ottoman economy and remained backward. Both dynasties patronized the arts and architecture In both dynasties, women were disadvantaged legally and socially: subordinate to fathers, husbands, no real political or religious power. In settled areas patriarchal and restrictive practices like seclusion and veiling were imposed on women, especially the elite! Evidence of a struggle where some women were found not to cover and to wear brightly colored garments. Many women active in trade and even money-lending. Wives and concubines influences rulers and princes. Court records reveal that women had Islam laws that protected their rights to inheritance, decent treatment by spouse, and divorce in extreme cases. However, these are exceptions and most women lived lives of low contact and full of domestic chores and hobbies. Women during these great Islamic civilizations disappeared from history   

25 The Rapid Demise of Safavids
Shah Abbas I ( ) reflected the Safavid Empire at its height. But the Safavid Empire would rapidly fall from power…due in part to this great and wise shah  Abbas I fear was to be overthrown (usurped) by his sons. With conspiracy theories feed to him like honey from his advisors, Abbas I reacted with violence. He killed or blinded all who could legitimately succeed him (remind of you of perhaps Ivan IV???) Abbas I had a very weak grandson who was placed on the throne after his death b/c it was thought that he could be easily manipulated  Princes started to kept in the court much like in the Ottoman Empire which led to the decline in the quality of ruler! There were other able shahs like Abbas II ( ) but they were too few of them to halt the decline of the empire! Factional disputes, rebellions within in empire while nomadic raiders, Ottomans, and Mughals armies took lands! March 1722 Isfahan attacked by Afghani tribes. By October 80,000 people in the city died  With the fall of Isfahan the Safavid Empire ended. Nadir Khan Afshar – tried to restore the Safavid Empire and proclaimed himself shah in 1736…short-lived though. The area of the Safavid Empire became a battleground for neighbors!

26 Mughals and Apex of Muslim India
India was a very diverse area and much larger than we think of it today. There were many, many kingdoms controlled by local princes. Muslims started their advance in 711 with the conquest under the Umayyads of the Sind Kingdom Then during the time period of the Abbasid Empire an Afghani slave army broke free of Abbasid control and began raiding into north India From these Afghani Muslim leaders established a kingdom in north India =Delhi Sultanate Under the Delhi Sultanate Islam continued progressing well into India and South East Asia. However, India had a much longer and very complex society and religion. Hinduism continued to be the main religion of India and from time to time conflict occurred between the two religions. The last century of the Delhi Sultante the sultan began to lose much power and many territories broke free of their control to form independent territories: both Hindu and Muslim kingdoms formed (Gujerat, Malwa, Bengal = muslim kingdoms)

27 Mughal Dynasty Islam reached its peak in South Asia under the Mughal dynasty created by Babur in 1526 Babur was a Turkish chieftain who was driven out of his lands by rival chieftains. His goal was always to retake Ferghana. However, as he tried to take back the kingdom, the Safavid Empire expanded cutting off his advance  Babur expanded into N. Indian in order to gain booty to finance various campaigns to retake his lost kingdom, Ferghana. But they wars to retake Ferghana were unsuccessful so Babur decided to focus on India and to expand there. He defeated the Lodi Sultan of Delhi [Delhi Sultanate]. The Lodi Sultan had many more men and a large elephant force. He should have easily conquered Babur. However, Babur had firearms and during the conflict the sound scared the elephants who ended up actually getting confused and turning on their own army! Babur then conquered the Indus/ Ganges plains and began the Mughal dynasty in India that would rule parts of India for over 300 years! Babur was dynamic: he was a fierce soldier/ great military strategist/ musician/ patron of art/ even wrote histories and designed garden! Humayan-in 1530 Humayan the son of Babur took over rule at 18. Babur unexpectedly died at 48 (he fell ill and died within days). With a very young son on the throne enemies quickly began to strike at the kingdom (Brothers, rajputs, and even Afghanis)! By 1540 Humayan was force to flee his empire and lived in the Safavid court in Persia. From there he began fighting his enemies. By 1556 Humayan restored Mughal rule in India in Delhi. He then started a campaign of expansion, but it was cut short! He fell down the steps of his library with books in hand on his way to prayer. He hit his head on the steps and died within days!

28 Babur Akbar

29 Akbar Ruled India at the same time that Elizabeth I ruled England, Philip II ruled Spain, and Suleyman the Magnificent ruled the Ottoman Empire! Akbar was one of the greatest rulers of all world history and fit within the other rulers of time. Akbar succeeded his father Humayan at 13 years after his unexpected fall. Being so young the Mughal enemies again fixes themselves to pounce! However, even at a young age Akbar proved to be a genius commander. Known for territorial and political centralization Akbar slept only about 3 hrs a night and worked constantly on improving the Mughal Empire: -mission to unite India under 1 rule -personally oversaw building of military and administrative systems that were more effective  Divided Empire into provinces, districts, and subdistricts. Started to pay some officials in money instead of land. Reformed the revenue collection of the country - patron of the arts -made important social reforms like encouraging intermarriage between Muslims and Indians, abolished the jizya or head tax on non-believers, made Muslims respect the scared Hindu cow, and promoted Hindus to higher offices in government. -policy of reconciliation and cooperation with Hindu princes and people. Would conquer Muslim kingdoms and depose leaders, but worked with rajputs who submitted to his power. He could pit the rajputs against powerful Turkish commanders and balance the powers of the empire better!

30 Akbar Conquered the Muslim kingdoms of : Gujerat, Malwa, and Bengal
Akbar also married various rajput Hindu princesses to make alliance stick. New faith, Din-i-Ilahi, wasn’t accepted by either Muslims nor Hindus  Akbar thought it would unite his people and end conflict especially dealing with religion Mughals also had a warrior aristocracy given land grants with peasants forced to support them in return for loyalty and cavalry Revenue was gained via tribute and taxes Hindus held power if they swore allegiance to Mughals

31 Social Reforms and Change
Akbar: Public works projects, improved the calendar, created living quarters for beggars/ vagabonds, regulated consumption of alcohol (son alcoholic) Encouraged women to remarry if they were widows, prohibited the sati (), was against child marriages (no law b/c it was so popular with elite), tried to work against the purdah or seclusion of women Akbar died in 1605 and outlived friends and family to see his sons fighting over the throne and the failture of Din-i-Ilahi. His successors (Jahangir/ Shah Jahan) were alive during the peak of the Mughal Empire, but were more interested in the pleasures of life and art rather than leading well (more poverty, less innovation/ science, less discipline esp. with soldiers!

32 Jahangir and Shah Jahan
Under their leadership the massive expansion of the Mughal dynasty and the centralization of the government continued. They conquered Muslim kingdoms of the Deccan AND made the powerful Muslim kingdoms of Bijapurt and Golkunda vassals to the Mughal Empire. They were best known for their love of art and architecture. There were many famous buildings constructed during their reigns.

33 Mughal Splendor and Early European Contacts
Developed trade during the 17th century with Europe! Remember the 7 Years War and the Black Hole of Calcutta India became known for its various industries, especially cotton! They made the best cotton in the world and our names for fabric are related directly to India: Calico-( ) (a printed cotton cloth) Indian city of Calicut cloth Chintz-( ) (printed or glazed cotton fabric, typically bright Muslin-(1600) loosely woven cotton fabric Pajamas- ( ) India: loose fitting trouser Cotton was popular in Europe because it was cheap, colorful, and easy to wash.

34 Artistic Achievement-Mughals
Jahangir/ Shah Jahan continued with government and fought enemies while expanding the empire-much due to what Akbar had established. However, they were more interested in the good like: drinking, female dancers, pleasure gardens, polo matches (Indian), ox, tiger, elephant fights, pachisi (life size version), fashion, and court ceremonies Jahangir and Shah Jahan were some of the greatest patron of art/ architecture in history of the world. They expanded painting workshops, build the Taj Mahal, Red Fort at Delhi, Akbar’s tomb at Sikandra = blended Persian and Indian traditions with a fuse of Islamic traditions. They desired to created a paradise on Earth.

35 Taj Mahal

36 Red Fort at Delhi

37 Akbar’s Tomb –Sikandra

38 Court Politics and Position of Elite/ Women
Jahangir/ Shah Jahan did not handle the day to day administration of the Mughal government instead they left this to their bureaucrats. While they were focused on the pleasures of life their wives strove to influence their reigns and gain power. -Nur Jahan (light of the world) married Jahangir. She was a widow who later moved to the court and he noticed her beauty and decided she should be one of his wives. She was very intelligent and capable and became the true leader behind the powers of the sultan. Jahangir had became addicted to wine and opium and Nur Jahan took power in the court by placing relatives in important positions. She was a great patron to the arts and charity. -Mumtaz Mahal (Shah Jahan’s wife) He loved her and was so devoted that he built the Taj Mahal for her. In 1631 Mumtaz died around the age of 40 giving birth to her 19th child! Shah Jahan said “Empire has no sweetness” and “life has no relish for me now.” To enshrine his wives memory, he ordered a tomb be built “as beautiful as she was beautiful.” Fine white marble and fabulous jewels were gathered from all over Asia while a workforce of 20,000 individuals worked for 22 years to build the famous tomb called the Taj Mahal! Shah Jahan also built the Red Fort at Delhi and the Peacock Throne (priceless seat of gold encrusted with diamonds, rubies, emeralds, and pearls). Status of women declined: lower age for child marriage (9), sati back, seclusion for elite women increased, Muslim women had to be veiled, and negative effects of dowry caused female birth to be looked down upon whereas boys were celebrated 

39 Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal (moom-tahz)
Nur Jahan the wife of Jahangir was basically ruling the state. She didn’t have sons so Jahangir’s other male children began to fight for the powers of the state. One son, Khusrau, even tried to usurp his father and take the throne by force. He unsuccessfully tried to murder his father. When Khusrau rebelled against his father, he turned to the Sikhs. This was a nonviolent religious group whose doctrines blended Buddhism, Hinduism, and Sufism (Islamic mysticism). Their leader, Guru Arjun, sheltered Khusrau and defended him. In response, the Mughal rulers had Arjun arrested and tortured to death. The Sikhs thus became the target of the Mughal’s particular hatred! Later, Khusrau was partially blinded by his father as punishment for the rebellion. Then, Shah Jahan won favor to with the help of his Nur Jahan. All possible rivals were assassinated. Nur Jahan then changed her support which led to Shah Jahan imprisioning her once he ascended to the throne. Shan Jahan built the Taj Mahal, the Red Fort at Delhi, and the Peacock Throne (priceless seat of gold encrusted with diamonds, rubies, emeralds, and pearls). While Shah Jahan built these magnificent buildings his people suffered. When Shah Jahan became ill in 1657 his four sons fought for the throne, Aurangzeb executed his older brother (his most serious rival), arrested and imprisoned his father, and seized power. Shah Jahan died a few years later in prison where it was said that he had a mirror in his cell that he would angle so that he could gaze upon the Taj Mahal.

40 Taj Mahal

41 Imperial Decline-Mughals
Shah Jahan and Jahangir neglected the Mughal state -bureaucracy became bloated and corrupt -productivity and standard of living declined Aurangzeb (awr-uhng-zehb) seized power and imprisoned his father. He extended the empire and built the empire to its greatest size, but power weakened too! Aurangzeb oppressed the people by rigidly enforcing Islamic laws-outlawing drinking, gambling, and other vices  He appointed censors to police his subjects’ morals and make sure they prayed at the appointed times. He tried to erase all Hindu gains, banned new construction of Hindu temples, and had Hindu monuments destroyed! He brought back the hated jizya (tax) on non-Muslim   This pretty much outraged most Hindus around India. Hindu Rajputs, whom Akbar converted from enemies to allies rebelled against him! Aurangzeb defeated them repeatedly, but never completely. In the southwest, militant Hindus, called Marattas founded their own breakaway state. Aurangzeb captured their leader, but the Marattas turned to guerrilla warfare. Aurangzeb could never conquer them. Meanwhile the Sikhs transformed themselves into a militant brotherhood. They began building a state in the Punjab (northwest India). Aurangzeb had to levy heavy burdening taxes on the people to pay for these wars. He had abolished all taxes not authorized by Islamic law so he ended up doubling the taxes on Hindu merchants. This increased bitterness and led to further rebellions. Aurangzeb need ever increasing funds for his army. The more land he conquered the more desperate his situation became!

42 Aurangzeb ( ) Closest to achieving chakravartin (bringing all of India under one king) Problems: constant warfare, which led to increases of taxes, and he was away fighting instead of being in the capital to make sure everything was done correctly. Main problems were social and economic issues! Rajputs of Marwar rebelled against Aurangzeb over issue of Aurangzeb annexing their lands. Punjab sikhs rebelled over land and independence, and the Marathas also fought the Mughals. Aurangzeb didn’t loses any territory and was able to contain these rebellions like with the Marathas in the battle of Panipat in 1761 were he defeated them just north of Delhi. 30 years after his reign independent states start to break off the Mughal Empire: (1) governors had too many powers from the state and no longer listen to the sultan and became independent (2) entire provinces started to break free like Deccan, Oudh, and Bengal. Also, around this time the French and British show up in India to make commercial claims. The British East India Company works with local rajputs and gains grounds that way. So as the Mughal dynasty was receding, the local rajputs were growing in power, and the British were forging powerful alliances and building up their presence in India. * Black Hole of Calcutta*

43 Global Connections Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires were similar to the growth of Russia and China (they too had Muslim populations, absolute rule, centralized state, and expansion based on new military techniques Muslim empire retained active trade from Middle East, Africa, India, to Asia (slaves, spices, etc) Silver from the Americas flowed into areas like Asia to pay for luxury goods Europe became increasingly assertive by establishing merchant groups with their own laws not subject to state law! Technology and science slowed in Muslim empires Muslim empires didn’t feel that Europe was a threat! The lack of meeting the growth of Europe led to their destruction and the weakening of their economies. Muslim empires couldn’t compete politically or militarily with Europe Mughal decline opened the door for European control in India (British/ French –Black Hole of Calcutta)

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