Presentation on theme: "Introduction to the Anglo Saxons ( A.D.)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction to the Anglo Saxons (449-1066 A.D.)
2 There were 7 groups of peoples who invaded and settled in Great Britain throughout its history: Iberians (Spain)Celts (indigenous people from British Isles)Romans (Italy))Angles (Germany)Saxons ( northern Germany & the Netherlands)Vikings (Norway, Sweden, and Denmark)Normans (northern France)
3 The Spirit of the CeltsWhen Greek travelers visited modern Great Britain in the 4 B.C., the group of warriors they found there were called…CeltsBrythons - Britons
4 The Spirit of the Celts The Celts followed a religion known as Animism or “spirit”- They saw spirits in all natural things--ponds, trees,fire, & thunderThese spirits controlled all aspects of existence & had to be constantlysatisfied.
5 The Spirit of the Celts Celtic priests were called Druids Intermediaries between the gods & peopleDruids memorized the history of their people & the secrets of their faithRitualistic dances and human sacrifices were also used.
6 The Spirit of the CeltsSome think a strange, stone-like structure on the Salisbury Plain known as Stonehenge was used by the Druids for religious rites.Some say it is an ancient clock.
7 The Celtic Heroes and Heroines Sir Thomas Malory was greatly influenced by the legends of Celtic heroesExample: Le Morte D’arthur – based on a Celtic warrior named ArthurCeltic legends are full of strong womenExample: Queen Maeve of ConnachtBoadicea--Legends include fantastic animals, incredible adventures, and magic.
8 BoadiceaFierce female tribal warrior who rose up against the invading Romans but was ultimately defeated.Boudica was a striking looking woman. - "She was very tall, the glance of her eye most fierce; her voice harsh. A great mass of the reddest hair fell down to her hips. Her appearance was terrifying." - Definitely a lady to be noticed!The Roman governor killed her husband and publicly flogged and her in addition to her daughters being raped by Roman slaves!Other Iceni chiefs suffered in a like manner and their families were treated like slaves.Not surprisingly these outrages provoked the Iceni, Trinobantes and other tribes to rebel against the Romans- Boadicea led that rebellion
9 Celtic WarriorsUsed a blue dye known as woad to give them such a terrifying appearance in battle.They were very tall and athletically builtFought nakedCarried long spearsUsed a fierce battle cry to intimidate their opponentsFought to show how brave they were, not to gain land or riches
10 The Romans: The Great Administrators Julius Caesar led the invasion of Briton in 55 B.C.Introduced two architectural additions to BritonRoadsDefensive wall – Hadrian’s WallApproximately 70 mile long wall was built by the Roman Emperor Hadrian to keep the 'barbarian' Picts from Scotland out of Roman Britain.
11 The Romans: The Great Administrators Christianity became a unifying force in Britain which caused the “old ways” of the Celts to vanishRomans evacuated Britain in 409 A.D., without leaving a central government thereBritain became a country of separate clans or tribesThis made Britain so weak after the Roman invasion that it was susceptible to pagan invasions.
12 The Anglo-Saxons Sweep Ashore In the middle of the 5th century Britain was attacked byAngles (Germany)Saxons (northern Germany & Netherlands)Jutes (Denmark)-Anglo-Saxon became the dominantlanguage after these invasionsThe new name of Britain after these invasionsEngla land or England
13 The Anglo-Saxons Sweep Ashore The Celts retreated to Wales as a result of the invasions from the northArthur – a Welsh chieftain – developed in legend as Britain’s “once and future king”Name of novel about Arthur’s life by T.H. White
14 Unifying Forces: Alfred the Great and Christianity King Alfred of Wessex was the Anglo-Saxon king who led his people to victory against the invading Danes & established England as one nation.
15 Unifying Forces: Alfred the Great and Christianity The Irish and continental missionaries were responsible for converting the Anglo-Saxon people to Christianity.They used established pagan holidays to partner with Christian holidays to make the conversion easier.
16 Unifying Forces: Alfred the Great and Christianity Three things Christianity provided for the Anglo-Saxon people:A common faithA common system of morality/ right conductA connection to England and Europe
17 Unifying Forces: Alfred the Great and Christianity William, Duke of Normandy, defeated the Danes in Britain in 1066 – Battle of HastingsAlso known as William the Conqueror
18 What Does Anglo-Saxon Mean? Anglo Saxon society developed from kinship groups led by a strong chiefPeople farmed, maintained local government, and created fine crafts especially metalwork.Christianity eventually replaced old warrior religion, linking England & continental Europe.Monasteries were centers fro learning & preserved works from the older, oral tradition.English – not just the Church’s Latin- gained respect a as a written language.
19 Anglo-Saxon Life as Described by the findings at Sutton Hoo Warfare was a dominant influence on daily lifeLaw and order was the responsibility of the leader of a group- family, clan, tribe, or kingdom.Fame and survival only came from loyalty to the leader (comitatus)Loyalty grew out of a need to protect the group from the enemy
20 Role of Women in Anglo-Saxon Culture They had rightsCould inherit & own property.Christian women could join religious communities (convents) & even became powerful abbesses.
21 Anglo-Saxon Religion: Gods for Warriors Warrior godDarkFatalisticBelieved the greatest honor was to die in battle and go to Valhalla – warrior heavenImportant virtues- bravery, loyalty, generosity, & friendship
22 Anglo-Saxon Religion: Gods for Warriors Odin (pronounced Woden) was the most important Norse godHe represented death, poetry, and magicThor or Thunor was the god of thunderHis symbols- hammer and swastika
23 Anglo-Saxon Religion: Gods for Warriors Dragon (firedrake)– Significant figure in Anglo-Saxon mythology personifies “death the devourer”Guards the greave mound of warriors’ ashes and treasure
24 The Bards: Singing of Gods and Heroes Scops or bards told stories of Anglo-Saxon history and heroes throughoral tradition – memorizing stories &passing them along by word of mouthScops were very important in Anglo-Saxon cultureThe only thing that could help an Anglo-Saxon’s memory live on after death was to have his story retold in poetry.
25 A Light from IrelandPatricus (Patrick) was the man responsible for converting all of Celtic Ireland to Christianity in 432 A.D.Taught pagans the concept of the Trinity using a shamrock (3-leaf clover)Three petals or leaves but one plantGod, the FatherGod, the SonGod, the Holy SpiritKnown to us as Saint Patrick
26 A Light from Ireland Golden Age in Ireland- Irish monks founded monasteries that became sanctuaries for learning for refugeesMonasteries served as centers for learning during the time period
27 The Christian Monasteries: The Ink Froze Scriptorium: A writing room used to copy manuscripts by handMonks wrote in Latin, the language of the Catholic Churchas a result, it became the language of serious study in England
28 The Rise of the English Language King Alfred had a c chronical written of England’s history from its earliest days until 1154 A.D.Anglo Saxon ChronicleAs a result, English began to gain respect as a language of cultureOnly then did the Old English stories & poetry preserved by the monks come to be recognized as great works of literature.