2There were 7 groups of peoples who invaded and settled in Great Britain throughout its history: Iberians (Spain)Celts (indigenous people from British Isles)Romans (Italy))Angles (Germany)Saxons ( northern Germany & the Netherlands)Vikings (Norway, Sweden, and Denmark)Normans (northern France)
3The Spirit of the CeltsWhen Greek travelers visited modern Great Britain in the 4 B.C., the group of warriors they found there were called…CeltsBrythons - Britons
4The Spirit of the Celts The Celts followed a religion known as Animism or “spirit”- They saw spirits in all natural things--ponds, trees,fire, & thunderThese spirits controlled all aspects of existence & had to be constantlysatisfied.
5The Spirit of the Celts Celtic priests were called Druids Intermediaries between the gods & peopleDruids memorized the history of their people & the secrets of their faithRitualistic dances and human sacrifices were also used.
6The Spirit of the CeltsSome think a strange, stone-like structure on the Salisbury Plain known as Stonehenge was used by the Druids for religious rites.Some say it is an ancient clock.
7The Celtic Heroes and Heroines Sir Thomas Malory was greatly influenced by the legends of Celtic heroesExample: Le Morte D’arthur – based on a Celtic warrior named ArthurCeltic legends are full of strong womenExample: Queen Maeve of ConnachtBoadicea--Legends include fantastic animals, incredible adventures, and magic.
8BoadiceaFierce female tribal warrior who rose up against the invading Romans but was ultimately defeated.Boudica was a striking looking woman. - "She was very tall, the glance of her eye most fierce; her voice harsh. A great mass of the reddest hair fell down to her hips. Her appearance was terrifying." - Definitely a lady to be noticed!The Roman governor killed her husband and publicly flogged and her in addition to her daughters being raped by Roman slaves!Other Iceni chiefs suffered in a like manner and their families were treated like slaves.Not surprisingly these outrages provoked the Iceni, Trinobantes and other tribes to rebel against the Romans- Boadicea led that rebellion
9Celtic WarriorsUsed a blue dye known as woad to give them such a terrifying appearance in battle.They were very tall and athletically builtFought nakedCarried long spearsUsed a fierce battle cry to intimidate their opponentsFought to show how brave they were, not to gain land or riches
10The Romans: The Great Administrators Julius Caesar led the invasion of Briton in 55 B.C.Introduced two architectural additions to BritonRoadsDefensive wall – Hadrian’s WallApproximately 70 mile long wall was built by the Roman Emperor Hadrian to keep the 'barbarian' Picts from Scotland out of Roman Britain.
11The Romans: The Great Administrators Christianity became a unifying force in Britain which caused the “old ways” of the Celts to vanishRomans evacuated Britain in 409 A.D., without leaving a central government thereBritain became a country of separate clans or tribesThis made Britain so weak after the Roman invasion that it was susceptible to pagan invasions.
12The Anglo-Saxons Sweep Ashore In the middle of the 5th century Britain was attacked byAngles (Germany)Saxons (northern Germany & Netherlands)Jutes (Denmark)-Anglo-Saxon became the dominantlanguage after these invasionsThe new name of Britain after these invasionsEngla land or England
13The Anglo-Saxons Sweep Ashore The Celts retreated to Wales as a result of the invasions from the northArthur – a Welsh chieftain – developed in legend as Britain’s “once and future king”Name of novel about Arthur’s life by T.H. White
14Unifying Forces: Alfred the Great and Christianity King Alfred of Wessex was the Anglo-Saxon king who led his people to victory against the invading Danes & established England as one nation.
15Unifying Forces: Alfred the Great and Christianity The Irish and continental missionaries were responsible for converting the Anglo-Saxon people to Christianity.They used established pagan holidays to partner with Christian holidays to make the conversion easier.
16Unifying Forces: Alfred the Great and Christianity Three things Christianity provided for the Anglo-Saxon people:A common faithA common system of morality/ right conductA connection to England and Europe
17Unifying Forces: Alfred the Great and Christianity William, Duke of Normandy, defeated the Danes in Britain in 1066 – Battle of HastingsAlso known as William the Conqueror
18What Does Anglo-Saxon Mean? Anglo Saxon society developed from kinship groups led by a strong chiefPeople farmed, maintained local government, and created fine crafts especially metalwork.Christianity eventually replaced old warrior religion, linking England & continental Europe.Monasteries were centers fro learning & preserved works from the older, oral tradition.English – not just the Church’s Latin- gained respect a as a written language.
19Anglo-Saxon Life as Described by the findings at Sutton Hoo Warfare was a dominant influence on daily lifeLaw and order was the responsibility of the leader of a group- family, clan, tribe, or kingdom.Fame and survival only came from loyalty to the leader (comitatus)Loyalty grew out of a need to protect the group from the enemy
20Role of Women in Anglo-Saxon Culture They had rightsCould inherit & own property.Christian women could join religious communities (convents) & even became powerful abbesses.
21Anglo-Saxon Religion: Gods for Warriors Warrior godDarkFatalisticBelieved the greatest honor was to die in battle and go to Valhalla – warrior heavenImportant virtues- bravery, loyalty, generosity, & friendship
22Anglo-Saxon Religion: Gods for Warriors Odin (pronounced Woden) was the most important Norse godHe represented death, poetry, and magicThor or Thunor was the god of thunderHis symbols- hammer and swastika
23Anglo-Saxon Religion: Gods for Warriors Dragon (firedrake)– Significant figure in Anglo-Saxon mythology personifies “death the devourer”Guards the greave mound of warriors’ ashes and treasure
24The Bards: Singing of Gods and Heroes Scops or bards told stories of Anglo-Saxon history and heroes throughoral tradition – memorizing stories &passing them along by word of mouthScops were very important in Anglo-Saxon cultureThe only thing that could help an Anglo-Saxon’s memory live on after death was to have his story retold in poetry.
25A Light from IrelandPatricus (Patrick) was the man responsible for converting all of Celtic Ireland to Christianity in 432 A.D.Taught pagans the concept of the Trinity using a shamrock (3-leaf clover)Three petals or leaves but one plantGod, the FatherGod, the SonGod, the Holy SpiritKnown to us as Saint Patrick
26A Light from Ireland Golden Age in Ireland- Irish monks founded monasteries that became sanctuaries for learning for refugeesMonasteries served as centers for learning during the time period
27The Christian Monasteries: The Ink Froze Scriptorium: A writing room used to copy manuscripts by handMonks wrote in Latin, the language of the Catholic Churchas a result, it became the language of serious study in England
28The Rise of the English Language King Alfred had a c chronical written of England’s history from its earliest days until 1154 A.D.Anglo Saxon ChronicleAs a result, English began to gain respect as a language of cultureOnly then did the Old English stories & poetry preserved by the monks come to be recognized as great works of literature.