Presentation on theme: "Ken Ostlie Department of Entomology - University of Minnesota (612) 624-7436 office(612) 750-0993 cell Soybean Aphid:"— Presentation transcript:
Ken Ostlie Department of Entomology - University of Minnesota firstname.lastname@example.org (612) 624-7436 office(612) 750-0993 cell www.soybeans.umn.edu Soybean Aphid: Critical Info for Clone Warfare
The Challenges of Clone Warfare: The soybean aphid is unlike typical corn or soybean pests. –Population female in summer –Females give birth to live young –Young mature in ca. 5 days –Populations double in 2-3 days In response to crowding, poor host quality or seasonal cues, females produce young that will become winged. Winged aphids spread within fields, colonize nearby fields or disperse long distance, avg. 7-10 miles/day. Aphids suck soybean sap; damage photosynthetic capacity of soybean plant. Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Mats.) Wanted Information Leading to the Successful Management
Where is it now? Spread of Soybean Aphid in the US, 2000-2003 Spread to S & W continues Outbreaks in 2003 primarily in western half of NC states Treatment occurred in DE & MD in 2003 R. Venette, unpublished data
Status of Soybean Aphid In Minnesota First found in SE corner in scattered fields in 2000. Spread across the state in 2001 with ca. 50K acres sprayed and extensive losses in SE Minnesota. Anticipated severe problems in 2002, but only scattered pockets developed. <15K acres sprayed. Widespread, severe infestations in 2003 with 3-3.5 million acres sprayed, losses exceeded $120 million (25% insecticide and application, 55% unprotected yield loss, 20% loss despite control), value of crop saved by spraying $135-205 million. –Timely scouting an issue in 2003. –Application delays up to 5 days. –Localized depletion of product. –Difficulty in deciding when to quit spraying.
Seasonal Dispersal of Soybean Aphid: M. Abrahamson, MDA Plant Pest Survey Program July 23 July 30 Aug. 8 July 9July 16
Factors Influencing Population Dynamics of Soybean Aphid Duration and intensity of colonization –Proximity and density of buckthorn –Fall and spring predation on buckthorn –Winter mortality –Survival and reproductive success on soybean Host quality / resistance Natural enemies (lady beetles, minute pirate bugs, lacewings, parasitic wasps, fungi) Rainfall (direct mortality, fungal outbreaks) Temperature –Optimal temperature ca. 82 o F Each year has seen different dynamics!
Soybean Aphid Impacts on Yield & Yield Components: 5 MN Fields in 2001
Soybean Aphid Impacts on Soybean Growth, Yield & Quality Soybean Growth Early infestations reduce stem nodes (up to 3 nodes) and height (up to 25%). Yield (84 fields) Insecticide sprays produced yield increases averaging 8.8 bu/A; range (0-27 bu/A) Primary effects on pod number with later infestations having more affect on seed size. Seed Quality (25 fields) Oil reduced 0.5% Protein increased 0.8%.
Yield Response (bu/A) to Insecticide Application for Soybean Aphid: 2001 vs 2003 On-farm Trials Typical Yield Benefit: 8.8 bu/acre Potential Yield Benefit
Yield Response to Insecticide Timing Tim Steier – Blue Earth Aviation Sprayed 8/8 None 8/13 7/31 Yield (bu/A) 42 36 42 55 Insecticides – Warrior @ 3.2 oz/A (7/31, 8/8), Lorsban @ 1 pt/A (8/13) in 4 gpa by air
Minnesota Research on Soybean Aphid Biology –Overwintering survival –Development, Reproduction and Temperature –Dispersal Sampling –Within field distribution –Within plant distribution Thresholds Insecticide Management –Understanding efficacy –Air vs. Ground –Tankmixing with RoundUp –Foliars vs seed treatments Cultural control Natural control
20022003 Can it survive here? Winter & soybean aphid Winter conditions do affect the overwintering range!
Soybean Aphid and Temperatures: Survival and Reproductive Rate McCornack, Venette and Ragsdale - 2003 Optimal Temperature ca. 82 o F Doubling Time ~ 1.5-2 days in greenhouse!
Soybean Aphid Developmental Rate and Temperature Upper Temperature Optimal Temperature F
Alate Production in MN Soybean: 2003 Hodgson, McCornack & Ragsdale Samples collected by MDA Plant Pest Survey Program Spring Colonization Mid-Summer Dispersal Late-summer Dispersal
Colonization of Soybean Fields: 2001 vs 2002 July 26July 19 July 12 2001 Aphids per plant 15 June, V1 26 June, V3 11 July, V5 27 July, R1 2002 % Plants Infested
Soybean Aphid Distribution on Vegetative Soybean (V7-8)
Insecticide Decisions for Soybean Aphid: Key Concepts Goal: A reliable and accurate scouting and decision process that maximizes economic benefit with minimal scouting input. Economic damage = Yield loss equal to the cost of control…about 3 bu/acre Economic Injury Level (EIL) = pest population that causes economic damage Economic Threshold (ET) = point at which an increasing pest population needs to be controlled to keep it from reaching the EIL…considers pest population dynamics and logistics of insecticide application.
Logistics and Timing Soybean Aphid Insecticides EIL ET ?
Calculating the Economic Injury Level Max Yield (bu/ac) Price ($/bu) 605040 $5.00254305381 $6.00210254317 $7.00178216270 Assumes: Cost of Control = $12.00/acre, doubling time 1.4d Sampling every 7 days. EIL = Average over 7 days = (AD/7)
Insecticide Performance Depends on Several Factors Soybean Aphid –Density, canopy distribution, colonization Soybean Crop –Canopy development, crop phenology, density Weather –Rainfall, temperature (reproductive rate, effects on insecticides), wind Application logistics –Air vs ground; carrier volume; nozzle type, pressure and speed; adjuvents. Insecticide Properties –Toxicity, residual protection, repellency, natural enemies
Insecticides Against Soybean Aphid B. Potter – New Ulm
Application July 31, 2003 Insecticides Against Soybean Aphid MacRae & Noetzel – Underwood, MN
2003 Insecticide Performance: Soybeans after Peas Ostlie and Price – Rosemount, MN
Alate Frequency After Insecticide Application * Suspected Repellency / Toxicity^ Enhanced Colonization ***** *** ^
Soybean Aphid Insecticides: Aerial vs. Ground Holen, Holen, Holder & Noetzel – Fergus Falls Warrior applied at 3 oz/A in 12 gpa ground and 5 gpa air on July 30.
Soybean Aphid Insecticides: Alone or Tankmixed with Herbicides? Ostlie and Price – Rosemount RoundUp Max & tank mix applied with Turbo T nozzles in 10 gpa. Warrior T alone applied with Extended Range flat fan nozzles in 20 gpa.
B. Potter University of MN 2003 2003 Seed Applied vs Foliar Insecticides Potter - SWROC
Soybean Aphid Management Strategies Areas with Overwintering SBA Earlier onset of aphid infestations, wider range of population densities Most likely near buckthorn concentrations Potentially higher yield loss; affects both growth & yield Treatments begin earlier in season but may occur as late => longer scouting window May need second insecticide application Serve as source for mid and late summer colonizing aphids Areas Colonized by Summer Immigrants Later onset of aphid infestations, more uniform infestations among fields Likely where conditions marginal, buckthorn sparse Lower yield loss if arrive later (less time for aphid buildup); canopy development OK Uncertain need for scouting and insecticides, but need intense if outbreaks occur Preemptive strikes unlikely to be economical (treat too early) Unlikely to need second application
Funding from Minnesota Rapid Agricultural Response Fund, Minnesota Soybean Research & Promotion Council North Central Soybean Research Program Data generated by: Soybean Aphid Team – U of M and Minnesota Department of Agriculture