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Current Indian Reservations in Texas: 1.Alabama- Coushatta 2.Kickapoo (They own a casino) 3.Tigua.

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Presentation on theme: "Current Indian Reservations in Texas: 1.Alabama- Coushatta 2.Kickapoo (They own a casino) 3.Tigua."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Current Indian Reservations in Texas: 1.Alabama- Coushatta 2.Kickapoo (They own a casino) 3.Tigua

4 HOW DID TEXAS GET IT’S NAME??

5 The state name originates from the Caddo Indian word "teysha" meaning "friends" Texas comes from the Caddo Indian tribe. The Spanish Conquistadors encountered the Caddo Indians around 1540 in the area of East Texas. The Caddos referred to the Spanish as "tayshas," which meant "friend" or "allies." The Spanish translation was "tejas." The Americans converted it to "Texas."

6 1. The Caddo Indians- Most Advanced Indians in Texas

7 Caddo Man

8 Caddo Woman

9 Caddo Village

10 Caddo Village- Were part of the Mound Building Tribe

11 Caddo Village

12 Caddo Indians- They farmed crops such as “Maize”- Corn

13 Caddo- Built their Villages on the Red River; made it easier to gather water

14 Caddo Pottery- helped to carry water, cook food, and trade or “barter” with other tribes

15 Caddo Pottery

16 Whitebread, Caddo chief (caddi) from

17 Mrs. Whitebread, wife of Caddo chief (caddi),

18 Jose Maria José Maria, famous chief of the Anadarko (Nadaco), who rose to become principal chief of all Caddo groups during the turbulent years of the mid- 1800s. José Maria, whose Caddo name was Iesh (Aasch), was famed both as a warrior and statesman. It was he who led the Caddo from the short-lived Brazos Reserve in Texas to the Indian Territory in This bronze bust by sculptor Leonard McMurry is on display at the National Hall of Fame for Famous American Indians in Anadarko, Oklahoma.

19 Sho-We-Tit (Billy Thomas), a Caddo man photographed by Joseph Dixon on June 21, 1913

20 The Caddo lived in beehive shaped huts.

21 *Caddo Indians moved tons of dirt in baskets to build their enormous temple mounds in East Texas.

22 Caddo- Celebrated by having a Ceremonial Dance

23 Caddo Woman Arranges Daughter’s Hair

24 Caddo Woman & Daughter 1890’s

25 Caddo Women Dance the Turkey Dance

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28 2. Coahuiltecan Indians

29 Coahuiltecan men would pursue a deer for an entire day until the deer dropped from exhaustion! -Lived in South Texas where we live today

30 Coahuiltecans often fought with other tribes They used hit and run techniques They fought to secure better hunting land

31 3. Karankawa Indians

32 Lived along the coast between Corpus Christi and Galveston Bay Cannibals- ate their enemies for “Strength” Migrated from California

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34 Perdiz Arrowpoints Commonly found at Karankawa Excavation Sites

35 Karankawa Indian SmokingPipe

36 4. APACHE INDIANS

37 Apache Indian Encampment Texas Hill Country

38 Lipan Apache Warrior

39 Lipan Apache

40 Apache Indians

41 Apache Devil Dance

42 Apache Wickiup

43 White Mountain Apache Scouts

44 Apache Men in Camp

45 Tonkawa Indians

46 Tonkawa Culture The Tonkawa Indians were actually a group of independent bands, the Tonkawas proper, the Mayeyes, and a number of smaller groups that may have included the Cava, Cantona, Emet, Sana, Toho, and Tohaha Indians. The remnants of these tribes united in the early eighteenth century in the region of Central Texas near Austin. The Tonkawa were hunters and fishermen, they did not farm. They hunted buffalo, deer, turkey and rabbits and caught fish, mussels and fresh water prawns. They also gathered and ate a number of herbs, roots, fruit, seeds, acorns, and pecans. When Anglo settlers moved into their region, pecans became an item of barter. In aboriginal days the Tonkawas lived in short, squat tepees covered with buffalo hides. As the buffalo became scarce, brush arbors, resembling the tepee in structure but covered with brush branches and grass, replaced the buffalo-skin tepee. Still later, these structures were replaced with simple flat-topped huts covered with brush. The Tonkawas intermarried with Lipans and other Indians or whites to the extent that they were no longer distinguishable as a separate tribe by 1951.

47 Chiricahua Apache man, No-talq

48 Camp of the Lipans, as depicted in an idyllic scene by Theodore Gentilz, 1840s.

49 Lipan Apache brave

50 Hattie, Chiricahua Apache, circa 1899

51 San Juan, a Mescalero Apache chief

52 Lipan Apache girl

53 Bison of the Plains, 1906

54 Apache Camp

55 Tonkawa Culture The Tonkawa Indians were actually a group of independent bands, the Tonkawas proper, the Mayeyes, and a number of smaller groups that may have included the Cava, Cantona, Emet, Sana, Toho, and Tohaha Indians. The remnants of these tribes united in the early eighteenth century in the region of Central Texas near Austin. The Tonkawa were hunters and fishermen, they did not farm. They hunted buffalo, deer, turkey and rabbits and caught fish, mussels and fresh water prawns. They also gathered and ate a number of herbs, roots, fruit, seeds, acorns, and pecans. When Anglo settlers moved into their region, pecans became an item of barter. In aboriginal days the Tonkawas lived in short, squat tepees covered with buffalo hides. As the buffalo became scarce, brush arbors, resembling the tepee in structure but covered with brush branches and grass, replaced the buffalo-skin tepee. Still later, these structures were replaced with simple flat-topped huts covered with brush. The Tonkawas intermarried with Lipans and other Indians or whites to the extent that they were no longer distinguishable as a separate tribe by 1951.

56 Tonkawa Woman

57 Tonkawa

58 TONKAWA The Tonkawan Indians of Texas The Tonkawa were a nomadic buffalo hunting people roaming from somewhere around what is now Hillsboro, Texas to the vicinity of present day San Antonio, Texas. They lived in scattered villages of tepees constructed from buffalo hides or arbors made from brush and grass. They ate most kinds of small game, fish and shellfish. They excepted the coyote and wolf from their diet for religious reasons. They collected nuts (especially pecans), herbs, acorns and fruits to supplement their meats. They even attempted some farming in the latter part of the eighteenth century. Their tribal culture was similar to many Plains Indian tribes, especially the Crow. Each band of Tonkawa elected a chief to lead them under an elected tribal head chief. Clan membership, determined by the mother's clan, was another important aspect of Tonkawa society. Marriage came with little ceremony, but funeral rites were extensive. Mourning lasted three days and was followed by a four day pipe smoking purification.DressThe Tonkawa were notable warriors who used bows, spears and firearms. The warriors wore protective leather jackets and caps decorated with horn and brilliant plumage. They traded tallow, deerskins and buffalo robes to the Spanish to obtain their first firearms in the late 18th century. The Tonkawa are known to have worn breastplates, chokers and ear pendants made with hair pipes. Breechclout, leggings and moccasins completed their warm weather clothing. A buffalo robe would be added on top for cold weather. Male and female Tonkawans tattoed and painted their bodies for adornment or religious purposes. A picture taken in 1871 shows Castile, a Tonkawan, with a long belt made of linked silver conchos, each an oval of about four by six inches. A line of small silver buttons or beads runs down the outside of each of his leggings. He is wearing a beaded feather hanging from over his right ear and dangling in front of his shoulder. Castile is reported to have been chief of the Tonkawas and a scout for both the Texas Rangers and the U.S. Army. Reports of cannibalism among the Texas tribes were often applied to the Karankawa and the Tonkawa.

59 Apache on Horseback

60 Apache Man & Woman

61 Plains Indians Relied on the Buffalo

62 Atakapan in Dugout Canoe

63 Comanche Horsemanship

64 Comanche

65 Women Cut Buffalo Strips to Dry

66 Comanche Village

67 Comanche Teepee

68 Comanche Braves

69 Quanah Parker

70 Cynthia AnnParker and her daughter, Topsannah

71 Comanche Woman

72 Comanche

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74 Comanche Woman

75 Comanche chief "Ee-shah-ko-nee" (the bow and quiver). From Catlin 1926.

76 Plains Indian Woman Artist Friedrich Richard Petri painted a variety of people and scenes in the area of his Fredericksburg home in the Texas Hill Country.

77 Battle of Plum Creek (Comanches)

78 Comanche Indians Chasing Buffalo by George Catlan

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82 Tonkawa Beaded Moccasin

83 Wichita Grass House

84 Wichita Camp 1904

85 Wee-Ta-Ra-Sha-Ro, Head Chief of the Wichita. Painted by George Catlin in 1834

86 Kiowa painting of Koba (Wild Horse) wearing feathered headdress on horseback with group of men including Etahdeleuh (Boy Hunting), carrying lances. Watercolor, 1875

87 Kiowa brave. Tow-An-Kee, son of Lone Wolf. Killed in Texas in 1873

88 Kiowa boy, wearing bone breastplate and striped cotton clothing. Photo circa ,

89 Kiowa Man & Wife

90 Kiowa Woman

91 Beaded Kiowa Moccasins

92 Kiowa Beaded Horse Halter

93 Kiowa on Reservation Circa 1900

94 Kiowa Baby

95 Kiowa Women

96 Kiowa camp, ca

97 Making Medicine." Kiowa drawing by Mopope, reflecting importance of buffalo to the Indian

98 Topin Tone-oneo, daughter of Kicking Bird. The only one of the great Kiowa chief's children to survive him.

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100 Enchanted Rock near Fredericksburg was considered a sacred (holy) place for the Native Americans that lived there.

101 During the winter the Karankawas stayed near the coast. Large schools of fish would come into the shallow bays, making them easy to catch. Clams and oysters were also available on the coast and were safe to eat in the winter. In the summer, when the fish moved too far out to sea to catch, the Karankawas moved inland. They survived by hunting deer, rabbits, turkeys, and turtles, and by gathering berries, plants, and a special root that grew in shallow water.

102 Jumanos

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