Presentation on theme: "Jefferson, A Reluctant Warrior"— Presentation transcript:
1Jefferson, A Reluctant Warrior One of his first actions as PresidentReduce military to a mere police force (25,000 officers and men).Penny-pinching v. Republican IdealsJefferson claimed to be trying to avoid entangling alliances of Europe by “peaceful coercion” not military force.Pirates in North African Barbary States had made a national industry of black mailing and plundering merchant ships that ventured into the MediterraneanPreceding Federalist administrations had bought protection
2Jefferson, A Reluctant Warrior In 1798, when Americans were shouting, “Millions for defense but not one cent for tribute,” twenty-six barrels of blackmail dollars were being shipped to piratical Algiers.Jefferson did not want war or to pay tribute.1801 the pasha of Tripoli informally declared war on the U.S. (cut down the flagstaff of the American consulate).With the gauntlet thrown, Jefferson reluctantly dispatching the infant navy to the “shores of Tripoli”
3Jefferson, A Reluctant Warrior After 4 years of intermittent fighting Jefferson extorted a treaty of peace from Tripoli in 1805.It cost 60,000, which represented the ransom of captured Americans.Fascinated by the small gunboats used to fight the battles, Jefferson advocated a large number of the little coastal craft. “Jeffs” or the “mosquito fleet”
4The Louisiana GodsendSecret Pact signed in 1800 between Napoleon Bonaparte and the king of Spain.For attractive considerations, the immense trans-Mississippi region of Louisiana, which included the New Orleans area was cede to France.Rumors of the transfer were partially confirmed in 1802Spaniards at New Orleans w/drew the right of deposit guaranteed America by the treaty of1795 (Treaty of San Lorenzo or Pinckney’s)Deposit or warehouse privileges were vital to frontier farmersA roar of anger rolled up the river, as pioneers talked wildly of descending upon New Orleans, rifles in hand.If they had done so, the U.S. might have gone to war w/ Sp.& FR.
5The Louisiana Godsend Pacifist Jefferson new situation Louisiana in Spain’s grip posed no real threat.American could seize the territory when the time was ripe.Louisiana in the iron grip of Napoleon, foreshadowed a blood-drenched future.America would have to fight to dislodge him.America was not strong enough alone, and would need allies.In 1803, with a clamor in the West, Jefferson sent James Monroe to Paris to join Robert Livingston.They were instructed to:Buy New Orleans and as much land to its east as they could get for a maximum of $10 million.If proposal failed, open negotiations with Britain for alliance.
6The Louisiana GodsendPacifist Jefferson new situationJefferson wrote, “we must marry ourselves to the British fleet and nation.”Hater of war and an enemy of entangling alliancesHe proposed to make an alliance with his old foe, Britain, against his old friend, France.Napoleon suddenly decided to sell all of Louisiana and abandon his dream of a New World empire.
7The Louisiana Godsend 2 developments changed his mind He had failed to reconquer the island of Santo Domingo,Toussaint L’OuvertureMosquitoesHe was about to end a 20 month lull in his deadly conflict with Britain.He feared that he might be forced to give Louisiana to the British.He also did not want to push the Americans into the arms of the British.He also hoped the U.S. would some day stop the British in the New World.
8The Louisiana GodsendRobert Livingston , pending the arrival of Monroe, negotiated in Paris.The French foreign minister asked, “how much he would give for all of Louisiana.”Livingston nervously entered the negotiations.After about a week, treaties were signed on April 30, 1803, ceding Louisiana to the U.S. for $15 million.Jefferson was shocked at the news!
9The Louisiana Godsend The envoy had signed 3 treaties Pledged $15 million for New Orleans, plus an immeasurable tract entirely to the west (it would more than double the size of the U.S.)Where in the Constitution was he authorized to do this?strict constructionist v. realist and public officialJefferson proposed an amendment be passed, but he was advised of the time restraints.
10The Louisiana GodsendJefferson shamefully submitted the treaties to the Senate, while admitting that it was unconstitutional.The Senate was less finicky. Quickly gave their approval.828,000 square miles at about 3cents an acre
11The Louisiana GodsendAvoided rupture w/ France, and alliance w/ Great Britain.Secured in one bloodless stroke the western half of the richest river valley in the worldAnd laid the foundations of a future major power.1804 Jefferson sent his personal secretary, Meriwether Lewis, and a young army officer, William Clark to explore the northern part of the Purchase. Aided by Shoshoni woman, Sacajawea.