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Jefferson, A Reluctant Warrior  One of his first actions as President  Reduce military to a mere police force (25,000 officers and men).  Penny-pinching.

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Presentation on theme: "Jefferson, A Reluctant Warrior  One of his first actions as President  Reduce military to a mere police force (25,000 officers and men).  Penny-pinching."— Presentation transcript:

1 Jefferson, A Reluctant Warrior  One of his first actions as President  Reduce military to a mere police force (25,000 officers and men).  Penny-pinching v. Republican Ideals  Jefferson claimed to be trying to avoid entangling alliances of Europe by “peaceful coercion” not military force.  Pirates in North African Barbary States had made a national industry of black mailing and plundering merchant ships that ventured into the Mediterranean  Preceding Federalist administrations had bought protection

2 Jefferson, A Reluctant Warrior  In 1798, when Americans were shouting, “Millions for defense but not one cent for tribute,” twenty-six barrels of blackmail dollars were being shipped to piratical Algiers.  Jefferson did not want war or to pay tribute.  1801 the pasha of Tripoli informally declared war on the U.S. (cut down the flagstaff of the American consulate).  With the gauntlet thrown, Jefferson reluctantly dispatching the infant navy to the “shores of Tripoli”

3 Jefferson, A Reluctant Warrior  After 4 years of intermittent fighting Jefferson extorted a treaty of peace from Tripoli in 1805.  It cost 60,000, which represented the ransom of captured Americans.  Fascinated by the small gunboats used to fight the battles, Jefferson advocated a large number of the little coastal craft. “Jeffs” or the “mosquito fleet”

4 The Louisiana Godsend  Secret Pact signed in 1800 between Napoleon Bonaparte and the king of Spain.  For attractive considerations, the immense trans- Mississippi region of Louisiana, which included the New Orleans area was cede to France.  Rumors of the transfer were partially confirmed in 1802  Spaniards at New Orleans w/drew the right of deposit guaranteed America by the treaty of1795 (Treaty of San Lorenzo or Pinckney’s)  Deposit or warehouse privileges were vital to frontier farmers  A roar of anger rolled up the river, as pioneers talked wildly of descending upon New Orleans, rifles in hand.  If they had done so, the U.S. might have gone to war w/ Sp.& FR.

5 The Louisiana Godsend  Pacifist Jefferson new situation  Louisiana in Spain’s grip posed no real threat.  American could seize the territory when the time was ripe.  Louisiana in the iron grip of Napoleon, foreshadowed a blood-drenched future.  America would have to fight to dislodge him.  America was not strong enough alone, and would need allies.  In 1803, with a clamor in the West, Jefferson sent James Monroe to Paris to join Robert Livingston.  They were instructed to:  Buy New Orleans and as much land to its east as they could get for a maximum of $10 million.  If proposal failed, open negotiations with Britain for alliance.

6 The Louisiana Godsend  Pacifist Jefferson new situation  Jefferson wrote, “we must marry ourselves to the British fleet and nation.”  Hater of war and an enemy of entangling alliances  He proposed to make an alliance with his old foe, Britain, against his old friend, France.  Napoleon suddenly decided to sell all of Louisiana and abandon his dream of a New World empire.

7 The Louisiana Godsend  2 developments changed his mind  He had failed to reconquer the island of Santo Domingo,  Toussaint L’Ouverture  Mosquitoes  He was about to end a 20 month lull in his deadly conflict with Britain.  He feared that he might be forced to give Louisiana to the British.  He also did not want to push the Americans into the arms of the British.  He also hoped the U.S. would some day stop the British in the New World.

8 The Louisiana Godsend  Robert Livingston, pending the arrival of Monroe, negotiated in Paris.  The French foreign minister asked, “how much he would give for all of Louisiana.”  Livingston nervously entered the negotiations.  After about a week, treaties were signed on April 30, 1803, ceding Louisiana to the U.S. for $15 million.  Jefferson was shocked at the news!

9 The Louisiana Godsend  The envoy had signed 3 treaties  Pledged $15 million for New Orleans, plus an immeasurable tract entirely to the west (it would more than double the size of the U.S.)  Where in the Constitution was he authorized to do this?  strict constructionist v. realist and public official  Jefferson proposed an amendment be passed, but he was advised of the time restraints.

10 The Louisiana Godsend  Jefferson shamefully submitted the treaties to the Senate, while admitting that it was unconstitutional.  The Senate was less finicky. Quickly gave their approval.  828,000 square miles at about 3cents an acre

11 The Louisiana Godsend  Avoided rupture w/ France, and alliance w/ Great Britain.  Secured in one bloodless stroke the western half of the richest river valley in the world  And laid the foundations of a future major power.  1804 Jefferson sent his personal secretary, Meriwether Lewis, and a young army officer, William Clark to explore the northern part of the Purchase. Aided by Shoshoni woman, Sacajawea.

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