12 ObjectionsWhich proofs does the Invasionist Model requires ?An archaeologic culture stretching from the homeland to western Europe and India. No.Items attesting the use of horses in combat. No.Archeologic attestation of significant battles. No.A good reason to move from the homeland : why should they bother to go anywhere else ? No. « The need for conquest ».A highly hierarchized society allowing the constitution of a warrior caste. No.
13 What do we actually have ? A common lexical stock BUTVery few words are common to ALL the IE languages (around 10)Some words may have been borrowed from neighbouring languages (ex; the numbers) : inheritance vs. borrowing.Common grammatical features (verb and noun flexion, affixation) : very little chance of borrowing
14 Model II: Neolithic Dispersal Theory (Colin Renfrew) An archaeologic culture stretching from the homeland to western Europe and India : the spread of farming from the Fertile Crescent to North-Western Europe (-7000/-3000 BCE)Items attesting the use of horses in combat. No combatArcheologic attestation of significant battles. No battlesA good reason to move from the homeland : the demographic rise occasioned by agriculture.A highly hierarchized society allowing the constitution of a warrior caste. No hierarchized society needed.
15 Model II: Neolithic Dispersal Theory : principles Hunter-Gatherers : 10km² = 1 people. One side = 3,3km. 30 people = 30 x 10 = 300km². One side = 17kmFarming : 1km² = 10 people. 300km² = 3000 peopleObjections :Many PIE roots are connected with farming. Renfrew’s urvolk did not know farming originallyNo IE toponymy in the Near-East.No correlation between the alleged migrations and the languages phylogeny*aretrom (plough): aratrum, arazr, ardhr (VI), arklas (Lit), ralo (Pl)*gwrawon (millstone): yugam (Sk), breo (Br.), kvern (Is), zrunuvi (OS)*yugom (yoke): yugam (Sk), igo (OS), juk (Got), ieo (Br), yukan (Hit).
16 Model III: Palaeolithic Continuity Theory Theoretician : Mario Alinei 1990Homeland : Refugees in Ice Age Europe (Spain, Balkans, Ukraine)Date : BCEExpansion Mode : No expansionObjection :- Where do the substrata languages (Iberian, Basque, Etruscan, Minoan, etc.) come from ?
17 SummaryI- Invasionist : 3000 BCE in Ukraine, military conquest of Europe and Asia (Kossinna – Gimbutas)II- Neolithic Dispersal Theory: 6000 BCE in the Near East, pacific spread of farmers (Renfrew)III- Palaeolithic Continuity Theory : BCE in Europe, without migration.