2 Anglo-Saxon Period(A.D. 449) Angles & Saxons, from Germany, and Jutes (Denmark) invade and impose their language & warrior culture on Britain.(1066) William the Conqueror defeats the Anglo-Saxon armies at the Battle of HastingsBritain = home to several Celtic tribes (named for one, the Brythons)Christianity blends with Anglo-Saxon heathenismAnimism: “spirit” or “god” – rivers, trees, stones, ponds, fire, thunder, etc.Druids: “priests” – intermediaries between the gods and the people
6 Anglo-Saxon Society Kinship groups were led by a strong warrior chief Law & order were the responsibility of the leader of a groupFame, success, and survival were gained through loyalty to the leaderSuccess was measured in gifts from the leaderPeople farmed, established local governments, & produced fine craftworkIt was imperative to protect the group from the enemy-infested wilderness.Anglo-Saxons lived close to animals in single-family homesteads—wooden buildings that surrounded a communal court or chieftain’s hall.English emerged as a written language.
8 Anglo-Saxon Religion Offered no hope of an afterlife (fate = “wryd”) Religion was dark and fatalistic—A/S believed all roads lead to deathDRAGON = significant figure believed to be the protector of treasureConcerned with ethics rather than mysticism—valued earthly virtues of bravery, loyalty, generosity, and friendshipSimilar to what we call Norse mythology
9 Anglo-Saxon BardsBard=a poet, or any person who recites or sings epic poemsCalled scops (“shopes”)Strummed a harp as they sangSang of heroic deedsWere often warriorsWhy were the scops important?A/S did not believe in an afterlifeWarriors gained immortality through songs
12 Daily Life in the Middle Ages Government: FeudalismTransportation: walking or using animalsSuperstitions: werewolves and bogeymenHouses/villages were made of wood and mudLivestock lived in houses with peopleTrue money did not existShort lifespan: Men – yrs.Women – less than 30 yrs.
13 Daily Life in the Middle Ages Shortage of people for work = children worked alongside adultsPeople who did not marry/have children paid taxesConstant famine, rotten flour, vitamin deficiencies caused:Sickness and disease:Abscesses, cankers, tumors, eczema, erysipelasBlindness, goiter, paralysis, bone malformation
14 “Life in 999: A Grim Struggle” Read the article on pgs of the textbookAnswer the following on a sheet of paper:What was life like in 999? What problems did people face? What types of superstitions did they have? What fears did they have?What metaphor does the author use to sum up the millennial period in Europe?