4FAMILIES, BRANCHES AND GROUPS Languages are often related. A mother language is spoken by groups of people who become separated by time and distance. Those groups then form new languages based on a common origin.LANGUAGE FAMILY: a collection of languages related through a common ancestral language that existed before recorded history. (Indo-European is the world’s most extensive language family.)LANGUAGE BRANCH: a collection of languages related through a common ancestral language that existed several thousand years ago. (A language family divides into a number of branches.)LANGUAGE GROUP: a collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary.
8A person who studies languages. What’s A Linguist?A person who studies languages.Linguistics
9Linguistic StudiesLinguists are particularly concerned with tracing the paths of languages and locating their hearths.This is pretty easy to do with some languages!BUT… virtually impossible with others!Of course…. The further back in time you go, the harder it is to accurately trace language.
10ENGLISH Family Plate Bank Problem SPANISH Familia Plato Banco Problema Linguistic StudiesENGLISH Family Plate Bank ProblemSPANISH Familia Plato Banco Problema
11ALL Indo-European languages share similar words! Beech, oak, bear, deer, pheasant, beeTHEREFORE… Linguists believe the words must represent things experienced in ____________________of the original Indo-European speakers.The Daily Life
12Indo-EuropeanTheir conclusion? The original Indo-European speakers probably lived in a _______________ climate, or one that had a ________________ season, but did not come in contact with _____________________.ColdWinterThe Ocean
13Theory #1 Hearth in modern Russia/Kazakhstan Nomadic Warrior Thesis - Kurgan Hearth TheoryHearth in modern Russia/KazakhstanThe Kurgans spread their language by conquering other peoples.Moved East to West
14Theory #2 Hearth in modern Turkey Sedentary Farmer Thesis Language spread along with agricultural innovationsMoved North to Europe, East to AsiaSedentary Farmer Thesis- Renfrew Hypothesis