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Introduction to Leadership Rory O’Sullivan 27 th February 2012.

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1 Introduction to Leadership Rory O’Sullivan 27 th February 2012

2 Outline What is Leadership? Importance of Vision Leadership Skills Leadership Archetypes Situational Leadership Model The Risks of Leading Change Scenarios

3 What is Leadership?

4 Leadership V Management “Management is doing things right Leadership is doing the right thing” Peter J. Drucker

5 A Theory of Leadership – R.J. Starratt Assumptions: 1. Leadership implies a relationship with other people 2. Leadership is something that is exercised over time rather than in a single act or event 3. Leadership takes place in relation to some organisation, agency, institution or community

6 What Leadership is not! It is not present simply because a person occupies a “leadership position” It is more than a style, a trait, a group of behaviours, or a degree of effectiveness It is not a part that is identified as encompassing a whole, e.g. risk-taking, decisiveness, foresight

7 Characteristics of Leadership Rooted in meaning Emerges out of a vision Emerges out of a dramatic sense Requires the articulation of a vision Embodies the vision in organisational structures Continuous or periodic renewal of the institution

8 Importance of Vision Peters & Austin, 1985 A Vision is a concise statement/picture of where the organisation and its people are heading In leadership the issue is not the substance of the vision but the importance of having one, being able to communicate it and implement it.

9 Vision comes first! Starts with a single individual “committee’s vision” – be wary! Dream or fantasy – a sense of the possible Bandwagon or hearse! Beware! – too many attempts at the vision process can create apathy

10 Vision and Action! Vision without action is merely a dream. Action without vision just passes the time. Vision with action can change the world! J.A. Barker 1990

11 Development of a Vision Stakeholders – who are they and what do they want? Environmental factors Guiding Values & Principles – Core Values Organisational analysis e.g. SWOT Change Management Potential Barriers

12 Vision Statement Example, Europa Hotel Belfast “We are ladies and gentlemen serving ladies and gentlemen”

13 Vision Statement Martin Luther King, 1963 “I have a dream that one day my four children will live in a nation where they will not be judged by the colours of their skin but by the content of their character. I have a dream today”

14 Vision Statement? Barack Obama, 2008 Yes we can! (Is feidir linn?)

15 Leadership Skills Technical – least important ? Organisational Administrative Human – very important ? People management Motivation Conceptual – most important ? Strategic planning Vision

16 Leadership Archetypes Ben Walden, 2008 Great King - Static Masculine – Order Great Mother – Static Feminine – Nurture Warrior – Dynamic Masculine – Action Medicine Woman – Dynamic Feminine - Change

17 Medicine Woman – Change Character Qualities Visionary Creates changes Enthusiastic “Sparky” Imaginative Paints Pictures (with words) Creative Adaptable Demonstrative Animated Inspired Dynamic Experimental

18 Great Mother – Nurture Character Qualities Reassuring Supportive Responsive Helpful Relational Receptive Radiates Warmth Encouraging Empathetic Sharing Relaxed Welcoming Builds Trust Develops others

19 Warrior – Action Character Qualities Inspiring Persuasive Selling Vision Competitive Strong Willed Confident Challenging Motivating Forceful Task focused “Call to Arms” Rousing Instils belief Confronting

20 Good King – Order Character Qualities Sets Objectives Praises success Informative Recognises Effort Authoritative Controlling influence Attention to detail Deliberate Precise Methodical Analytical Logical Assessment Practical

21 Negative Leadership Potentials Good King – Too Much Order Bitter Old Man Great Mother – Over Nurture Devouring Mother Warrior – Action Only Mercenary Tyrant Medicine Woman – Addicted to Change Madwoman


23 The Risks of Leading Change Ref. Heifetz and Linsky Leadership often involves challenging people (including yourself) to live up to their words, to close the gap between their espoused value and their behaviour It is often about helping groups make difficult choices

24 The Risks of Leading Change Ref. Heifetz and Linsky Leadership can come from any place within or even outside an organisation. The more authority you have, the more you risk when you exercise leadership. Leadership is dangerous because you are rarely authorised to lead.

25 The Risks of Leading Change Ref. Heifetz and Linsky If leadership were about giving people good news the job would be easy. People do not resist change as such. People resist loss. You place yourself in the line when you tell people what they need to hear rather than what they want to hear.

26 The Risks of Leading Change Ref. Heifetz and Linsky The problems that require leadership are those that the experts cannot solve The solution to these adaptive challenges lie not in technical answers, but rather in people themselves. Successful leaders in any field tend to emphasize personal relationships.

27 The Risks of Leading Change Ref. Heifetz and Linsky Remember when you ask people to participate in adaptive change, you are asking a lot. You may be asking them to choose between two values, both important to the way they understand themselves. You may be asking people to close the distance between their espoused values and their actual behaviour.

28 The Risks of Leading Change Ref. Heifetz and Linsky Any significant adaptive change that benefits the organisation as a whole may clearly and tangibly hurt some of those who thrived under the status quo. If people simply cannot or will not go along with change, then they will become casualties. If you signal your unwillingness to sustain casualties, you invite people to ignore your goals.

29 Leadership Scenario 1 Crisis Situation Significant Budget Cuts/Loss of Business How should a leader behave?

30 Leadership Scenario 2 Traumatic Event In a small company/organisation a colleague’s mother dies suddenly and unexpectedly. What should the leader do?

31 Rudolph Giuliani Mayor of New York in 2001 Weddings Discretionary Funerals Mandatory

32 Leadership Scenario 3 Conflict situation in the organisation Staff is split on a particular issue How should a leader behave?

33 Wanted “The Perfect Leader” A miracle worker who can do more with less, pacify rival groups, endure chronic second guessing, tolerate low levels of support, process large volumes of paper and work double shifts (at least 75 nights per year), he or she will have carte blanche to innovate, but cannot spend much money, replace any personnel or upset any constituency. - Michael Fullan, 1995

34 Thank You Questions?

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