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Heian Period (794-1185) Cassie Travers and Amy Do.

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1 Heian Period ( ) Cassie Travers and Amy Do

2 General Information Heian means “peace” and “tranquility” The Heian period is known for the rise of the samurai class. The warrior class came out during this time because the Fujiwara and other clan families required guards. The Shogunate, the highest warrior rank, came into power because the ruling class proved incompetent. During this time, Japan became less influence by China and became more “Japanized”.

3 Important Events 794 – Emperor Kammu moves capital to Heian-Kyo (current day Kyoto) 858 – Emperor Seiwa begins the rule of the Fujiwara clan 1050 – Rise of the military class (Bushido) 1068 – Emperor Gosanjo overthrows Fujiwara clan

4 Bushido – “way of the warrior” Bushi – “warrior” ; Do – “way” It was a way of preserving the peace through using force and samurais. Samurais had seven virtues ◦ Gi – rectitude ◦ Yu – courage ◦ Jin – benevolence ◦ Rei – respect ◦ Makoto – honesty ◦ Meiyo – honor ◦ Chugi – loyalty One of the first attempts of the Imperial government to form an organized army. Bushido was influenced by Zen Buddhism, Confucianism, and Shintoism. Duty before death

5 Bushido cont. It wasn’t unusual for a samurai to commit suicide, or hara-kiri It’s formal term was seppuku This was legal and ceremonial Samurais did this if they disgraced family, house, or felt ashamed It was honorable

6 Fujiwara Clan Descended from the Nakatomi clan Founded by Nakatomi no Kamatari Rewarded by Emperor Tenji with “Fujiwara” and it became his surname They were the effective rulers of Japan until the shogunates took over after the Heian period Took over power by exercising insei, or cloistered rule. Dominated politics through monopoly and Sesshou and Kampaku They monopolized the titles of the two Had control of the rice fields, which was their source of power and key source of income. Occupied a lot of positions and seats in the government and controlled it through their connections

7 Women Before the Heian period, women were masters of elemental and spiritual world During the Heian period, they lost their ancient powers Political orientation that barred women from most political offices Their social position remained high though. ◦ Highly educated ◦ Could inherit property Wrote Japan’s first autobiographical narratives in poem-diaries They made major contributions to literature ◦ “The Tale of Genji” by Murasaki Shikibu

8 Economics Unusually long period of peace Samurai took over because nobles were not good leaders. Currency began to disappear People would pay others with useful objects instead of currency. Control of rice fields was a key source of income for the Fujiwara families.

9 Culture and Daily Life Culture was taken from China at the beginning, but gradually became more of its own kind. Heian culture was contributed to by women at this time Aristocrats liked poetry, music, and all the arts. Mixing incense Using calligraphy and sensitivity in writing poems and literature.

10 Literature and Art/ Great Achievments Growing self-confidence in their own culture Literature ◦ Narrative stories- monogatari ◦ Diaries- nikki ◦ Waka and tanka – genres for poetry Calligraphy “Tales of Genji”- one of the most famous pieces in their period of time ◦ Written by Murasaki Shikibu, a female member of the Fujiwara clan Architecture, painting, and sculptures ◦ Inspired by Amida Buddha, which had taken over Esoteric Buddhism Development of the Kana symbols

11 Beauty Aristocrats whitened their faces and blackened teeth (ohaguro) Important part of what made one a good person. Males – faint mustache and goatee Females – red painted mouth, eyebrows plucked or shaved and drawn grown.

12 The Beginning and the end of the Heian Period Began with the founding of Kyôto, or Heian-kyo Came after the Nara period ◦ Period of relative peace Ended with the Battle of Dan-no-Ura The Taira (Heike) Clan took over the court under the leadership of Kiyomori After his death, the opposing clan, the Minamoto (Genji) Clan, dominated them Battle very comparable to the Sacking of Constantinople Battle ends with Nii-no-ama, Kiyomori’s wife, jumping off a cliff; The Minamoto ended up winning over the Taira clan They ruled and had their headquarters in Kamakura

13 Bibliography "Japanese History: Nara, Heian Periods." Japan-guide.com - Japan Travel and Living Guide Web. 23 Nov "Heian Period - New World Encyclopedia." Info:Main Page - New World Encyclopedia. Mediawiki, 2 Apr Web. 23 Nov "Fujiwara Clan." PediaView.com Open Source Encyclopedia Supplement. Google. Web. 23 Nov "Heian Period: Facts, Discussion Forum, and Encyclopedia Article." AbsoluteAstronomy.com. KDDIA, Web. 23 Nov "Shogun: Facts, Discussion Forum, and Encyclopedia Article." AbsoluteAstronomy.com. Google, Web. 23 Nov Imamura, Rio. Fujiwara Clan Crest. Digital image. Bing. 20 May Web. 23 Nov Osdx. Samurai Wallpaper. Digital image. DeviantArt Web. 23 Nov

14 Bibliography cont. Department of Asian Art,. "Heian Era ( )." Metropolitan museum of art. Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, Web. 2 Dec "Heian Period." The Art of Asia. Minneapolis Institute of Arts, n.d. Web. 2 Dec "Heian Period ( )." Heian. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Dec "The Heian Period: " comumbia.edu. Asia for Educators, n.d. Web. 2 Dec Ross, Kelly L.. "Emperors, Shoguns, & Regents of Japan." Emperors of the Sangoku, the "Three Kingdoms," of India, China, & Japan. N.p., Web. 2 Dec "Women in World History : MODULE 2." Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media Web. 03 Dec


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