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I:\S-3\2 - S-3 Warrior Forge Plans Branch\2010 WF\WF2010 PLANNING SCENARIO\WF 10 Scenario\RTW products to Cadet Command Common Training Scenario Concept.

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Presentation on theme: "I:\S-3\2 - S-3 Warrior Forge Plans Branch\2010 WF\WF2010 PLANNING SCENARIO\WF 10 Scenario\RTW products to Cadet Command Common Training Scenario Concept."— Presentation transcript:

1 I:\S-3\2 - S-3 Warrior Forge Plans Branch\2010 WF\WF2010 PLANNING SCENARIO\WF 10 Scenario\RTW products to Cadet Command Common Training Scenario Concept Brief Shift from Palomas to Caucasus Region WARRIOR FORGE 2010 UNCLASSIFIED For Training Purpose Only in Cadet Command

2 I:\S-3\2 - S-3 Warrior Forge Plans Branch\2010 WF\WF2010 PLANNING SCENARIO\WF 10 Scenario\RTW products to Cadet Command To gain approval of concept that will shift the WARRIOR FORGE Road to War from Cadet Command internal scenario (Palomas) to the TRADOC directed Common Training Scenario (Caucasus Region). PURPOSE

3 I:\S-3\2 - S-3 Warrior Forge Plans Branch\2010 WF\WF2010 PLANNING SCENARIO\WF 10 Scenario\RTW products to Cadet Command CTSs were developed in response to OES transformation initiatives set forth by the CSA during Were designed to meet leader development needs of institutional training and education systems within the Army. Work on the initial CTS began in June 2004 with Battle Command Training and Integration Division, Collective Training Directorate (BCTID, CTD) providing final delivery for CTS I in October 2005 Primary purpose of the CTSs is to provide overarching education/training products for use across the entire Army education system. CTSs have a sister product, the Battle Command System of Systems Integration Training Support Packages, that are available to units for use in their battle command/battle staff training programs. CTSs will be used to instill within Army leaders a capability for planning and coordinating simultaneous and full spectrum operations in a Joint decisive action setting within the contemporary operational environment (COE). CTS concept is a TRADOC Higher Headquarters Initiative (HHI) providing a TRADOC Intelligence Support Activity (TRISA) approved COE in two scenarios. CTS I is full spectrum operations (FSO) in the Caspian Sea Region. CTS II is stability/COIN operations in a South West Asia (SWA) Iraq/Afghanistan environment. Both scenarios incorporate the integration of light and heavy modular forces as part of a joint expeditionary capable force. BACKGROUND

4 I:\S-3\2 - S-3 Warrior Forge Plans Branch\2010 WF\WF2010 PLANNING SCENARIO\WF 10 Scenario\RTW products to Cadet Command CTSs were developed in response to OES transformation initiatives set forth by the CSA during Were designed to meet leader development needs of institutional training and education systems within the Army. Work on the initial CTS began in June 2004 with Battle Command Training and Integration Division, Collective Training Directorate (BCTID, CTD) providing final delivery for CTS I in October 2005 Primary purpose of the CTSs is to provide overarching education/training products for use across the entire Army education system. CTSs have a sister product, the Battle Command System of Systems Integration Training Support Packages, that are available to units for use in their battle command/battle staff training programs. CTSs will be used to instill within Army leaders a capability for planning and coordinating simultaneous and full spectrum operations in a Joint decisive action setting within the contemporary operational environment (COE). CTS concept is a TRADOC Higher Headquarters Initiative (HHI) providing a TRADOC Intelligence Support Activity (TRISA) approved COE in two scenarios. CTS I is full spectrum operations (FSO) in the Caspian Sea Region. CTS II is stability/COIN operations in a South West Asia (SWA) Iraq/Afghanistan environment. Both scenarios incorporate the integration of light and heavy modular forces as part of a joint expeditionary capable force. BACKGROUND

5 I:\S-3\2 - S-3 Warrior Forge Plans Branch\2010 WF\WF2010 PLANNING SCENARIO\WF 10 Scenario\RTW products to Cadet Command Cadet Command approve concept of using Caspian Sea CTS (Caucasus Region) as the RTW for Warrior Forge RECOMMENDATION

6 I:\S-3\2 - S-3 Warrior Forge Plans Branch\2010 WF\WF2010 PLANNING SCENARIO\WF 10 Scenario\RTW products to Cadet Command Institutional focus, incorporates aspects of Army transformation, emerging force structure, concepts of modularity and expeditionary force employment Supports operational and tactical levels of conflict Scenario based with full-spectrum /simultaneous operations; phased operation allows WF to focus on Stability Operations while maintaining current emphasis of small-unit tactics and leadership ICW FM and FM Meets the needs of institutional training for a common scenario to nest efforts of BOLC-A CC training with OES, NCOES, and WOES and future Army transformation Includes variables/types of units that enables us to work a COE into training/assessments without making fundamental shifts of training and guidance on campus Maintains ability to train Cadets in Cultural Awareness and Ethics/Values in a tactical environment Adheres to current Army and Joint doctrine; TRADOC guidance to move towards approved CTS CTS CHARACTERISTICS

7 I:\S-3\2 - S-3 Warrior Forge Plans Branch\2010 WF\WF2010 PLANNING SCENARIO\WF 10 Scenario\RTW products to Cadet Command Common Training Scenario Caucasus Region WARRIOR FORGE 2010 UNCLASSIFIED For Training Purpose Only in Cadet Command

8 I:\S-3\2 - S-3 Warrior Forge Plans Branch\2010 WF\WF2010 PLANNING SCENARIO\WF 10 Scenario\RTW products to Cadet Command Regiments deploy to ISB Lewis beginning 14Jun10 in order to support 2-76 th IBCT combat operations against Insurgent (Arianan) Forces in Southern Atropia. On Order conduct Stability Operations along the Atropia-Ariana international border IOT maintain Atropia’s territorial integrity and prevent enemy forces from influencing the local population. PROPOSED MISSION

9 I:\S-3\2 - S-3 Warrior Forge Plans Branch\2010 WF\WF2010 PLANNING SCENARIO\WF 10 Scenario\RTW products to Cadet Command B-C PIPELINE U AREA OF OPERATION Atropia – Located South Caucasus; bordered by Donovia to the north, the Caspian Sea to the east, Ariana to the south, and Gorgas and Minaria to the west. – 33,400 sq. mi. (includes Atropia Minor and Arzak); slightly smaller than Maine. – Ethnic groups: Atropian 90%, Donovian 2.5%, Minarian 2%, and other 5.5%. – Predominant Language: Spanish (Castilian dialect) – Religion: Approximately 95% of the population of Atropia is Shi’a Muslim. Oil Fields ARIANA DONOVIA GORGAS KEMALIA MINARIA ATROPIA FAISALIA PROPOSED AOR – Will Align With Fort Lewis Terrain Ariana – Located in the Caspian Region; bordered by Atropia to the north, the Caspian Sea to the east, the Persian Gulf to the south, and Faisalia to the west –636,294 sq. mi.; slightly larger than Alaska. – Ethnic groups: Arianans 51%; Atropian 24%; Gilaki and Mazandarani 8%, Kurds 7%; Arabs 3%, Lur 2%, Baloch 2%, Turkmenistani 2%, and other 1%. Note: the northwest territories are almost 100% ethnic-Atropian. – Predominant Language: Spanish (Andalusian dialect) – Religions: Shi'a Muslim 90%; Sunni Muslim 8%; Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, Baha’I 2%.

10 I:\S-3\2 - S-3 Warrior Forge Plans Branch\2010 WF\WF2010 PLANNING SCENARIO\WF 10 Scenario\RTW products to Cadet Command B-C PIPELINE BTC PIPELINE U KEMALIA Oil Fields MINARIA GORGAS DONOVIA Key Facts Leading to Conflict in Region ARIANA ATROPIA ; South Atropian People’s Party (SAPP) formed to represent people of region but it unable to influence change; gave birth to South Atropian People’s Army (SAPA) ; SAPA, trained and equipped in Ariana, began attacking Atropian army units sent to maintain order and peace in area. 3. Atropia has territorial disputes with most of neighbors. In west, Atropia and Minaria have both claimed Arzak province since the early 1900s. 4. Active fighting over the region began in The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), with assistance from Ariana and Kemalia, finally negotiate a ceasefire Ariana Reasons for Conflict: Dispute over ethnic Ariana citizens in Atropia being denied basic rights. Ariana does not want to see new BTC pipeline as a competitor to their oil operations. Ariana claims rights to the oil platforms in the Caspian Sea that are the key element in a large deal brokered by Atropia with a consortium of international oil companies Arianan government opposes the formation of the Caspian Federation. Ariana’s political and religious leaders feel Shia’a Muslim population of Atropia is being steered towards westernization by their current government.

11 I:\S-3\2 - S-3 Warrior Forge Plans Branch\2010 WF\WF2010 PLANNING SCENARIO\WF 10 Scenario\RTW products to Cadet Command BTC PIPELINE MINARIA GORGAS U DONOVIA KEMALIA Oil Fields KEMALIA DONOVIA GORGAS MINARIA 1. Jan 2008; Ariana provided indirect fires cross-border ISO SAPA. 2. Mar 2008; Series of border incursions into Atropia are reported near Jalilabad and Lerik. Atropia captures several Arianan nationals and claims they are Arianan Special Purpose Forces (SPF) members. 3. Jan 2009; Terrorists disrupt roads between Atropian villages; blow up bridges and other vital facilities, including pipeline supplying Ganca (Atropia’s second largest city) with drinking water. 4. Apr 2009; U.S. President announces we are committed with other nations to preserve the Caspian Federation; states maintaining the region’s ability to produce oil for the world market is a global concern. 5. Jun 2009; SAPA insurgents resume attacks against Atropian government facilities. 6. Jul 2009; Ariana holds large-scale “show of force” military exercises near Atropian border Oct 2009; SAPA simultaneously attack British and Canadian embassies in Baku, Atropia Oct 2009; Caspian Federation forces conduct counterinsurgency operations against insurgents throughout Atropia; Arianan responded with brigade exercises along Atropia southern border week following Nov 2009; Ariana division units violate Atropia’s southern border; Atropia requests U.S. assistance to prevent Ariana aggression Nov 2009; Phase I of U.S. Operations begin when the President, through the Secretary of Defense, directs execution of OPLAN (OPERATION WESTERN PEACE) December 2009 U.S. Forces begin arriving APOD in Tbilisi, Gorgas and SPOD in Baku, Atropia as part of Phase II of OPERATION WESTERN PEACE (DEPLOYMENT OPERATIONS) Jan 2010, Imam Jalal Matini, Senior Religious Advisor to President Reza Pahlvi issues a warning to the U.S. and NATO that outside interference in region affairs is a violation of international law; calls for use of force to prevent further westernization of Islamic youth. CONFLICT TIMELINE BTC PIPELINE ARIANA ATROPIA

12 I:\S-3\2 - S-3 Warrior Forge Plans Branch\2010 WF\WF2010 PLANNING SCENARIO\WF 10 Scenario\RTW products to Cadet Command B-C PIPELINE US UNITS BTC PIPELINE TF 61 5 MEB AEF (-) 1-57 I R U X FED PRE-DEPLOYMENT PHASE I KEMALIA TF 60.2 Black Sea Coop Fleet XX FED 15 XX FED 2 SAPA Oil Fields X 174 DONOVIA MINARIA GORGAS OPERATION WESTERN PEACE ARIANA ATROPIA OSC 2 OSC 3 SOF OSC 1 XX FED 9 Ariana threatens Atropia and Federation with armed action if they do not accede to Ariana’s demands, begins to mobilize and train OSC on Atropian border, insurgent activities increase. RCC exercises Force Deployment Options (FDO) from regional strategy to promote deterrence and stability in Caspian Federation in response to Ariana actions: 1. Establishes JTF HQ for planning 2. Deploys SOF to Atropia to participate in FID 3. Deploys Ranger Battalion to BAKU to participate in counter-insurgency training 4. Deploys TF 61 to Black Sea; 5 MEB conducts training ashore in area of SPOD/APOD 5. Deploys 1-74 HBCT to Gorgas for training with Federation forces along Gorgas/Atropia border 6. Deploys AEF package to Gorgas for training with Caspian Federation 7. Requests TF 60 in Med to support AEF in training 8. Sponsors training exercise with TF 60.2 Black Sea Cooperation Fleet

13 I:\S-3\2 - S-3 Warrior Forge Plans Branch\2010 WF\WF2010 PLANNING SCENARIO\WF 10 Scenario\RTW products to Cadet Command B-C PIPELINE US UNITS TF 61 5 MEB AEF IV 1-57 I R U KEMALIA Ariana forces attack into Atropia with air support following IO campaign. RCC response: 1. Establish JTF HQ ashore, assign command of all Federation and coalition forces; CJTF publishes OPORD, forces alerted for deployment ID HQ deploys as CJFLCC HQ; 10 CORPS HQ deploys to Gorgas as intermediate control HQ 3. Assigns 1-74 HBCT to CJFLCC 4. 5 MEB ashore to secure SPOD/APOD, defend against insurgent attacks 5. CJFACC participate in CJTF defense with AEF (-) forces in AOR, including TF 60 in Med 6. Ranger Battalion secures BAKU airfield, coordinates city defense with Federation Capital Defense division 7. SOF priority to SR and search for WMD/TBM 8. CJTF conducts defense to halt Atropian attacking forces X FED OSC 3 XX FED X 174 XX HD XX CD BAKU SAPA Oil Fields DONOVIA GORGAS MINARIA ARIANA ATROPIA XX FED XX FED OSC 1 OSC 2 PRE-DEPLOYMENT PHASE I OPERATION WESTERN PEACE

14 I:\S-3\2 - S-3 Warrior Forge Plans Branch\2010 WF\WF2010 PLANNING SCENARIO\WF 10 Scenario\RTW products to Cadet Command B-C PIPELINE US UNITS TF 61 5 MEB AEF IV 1-57 I R U X DON KEMALIA Ariana attack continues amid intense IO campaign. RCC response: 1. RCC requests TPFDL execution. 2. AEF III priority movement to theater to support CJTF campaign plan – priority to air superiority, CJFLCC support 3. TF 60 provides support to CJFACC SBCT deploys to BAKU by inter-theater lift from Romania HBCT participates in coordinated CFJLCC defense 6. CJFLCC establishes subordinate commands: Fed West, Fed East, 10 CORPS(in deployment) 7. MEB disembarks and moves by air and overland to participate in defense 8. Donovian brigade begins self-deploy along Caspian Sea coastal routes 9. CJSOTF conducts SR and limited DA w/in occupied areas and finds TBM in OSC 3 AOR XX FED X XX HD OSC XX CD 4 X OOO XXX Fed East Fed West II MEF 10 X 5MEB SAPA Oil Fields xxx X DONOVIA GORGAS MINARIA DEPLOYMENT PHASE II OPERATION WESTERN PEACE ARIANA ATROPIA OSC 3 OSC 2 XX FED XX FED

15 I:\S-3\2 - S-3 Warrior Forge Plans Branch\2010 WF\WF2010 PLANNING SCENARIO\WF 10 Scenario\RTW products to Cadet Command B-C PIPELINE US UNITS TF 61 5 MEB (-) OSC 3 OSC 1 KEMALIA AEF IV Fed West Fed East XXX 10 CORPS XXX X 19 FED 78 II MEF X 5MEB 1-57 I R X DON 4 X OOO Oil Fields SAPA XX DONOVIA GORGAS MINARIA INITIAL ENTRY & SHAPING OPERATIONS PHASE IIIa OPERATION WESTERN PEACE ARIANA ATROPIA U OSC 2 X 174 X FED 21 Ariana ground attack culminates, integrated area defense established, air force moves to south of country and stops flying, intense IO campaign. CJTF builds forces to execute counter-offensive: 1. CJFACC establishes air supremacy, hunts for TBM 2. CJFLCC establishes operational boundaries for 10 CORPS CORPS assumes command of 1-74 HBCT, 5 MEB(-), and 1/2 Fed Inf Div in defense positions ID priority of deployment to build forces TH Ranger maintains security at Baku airfield SBCT and Donovian Bde coordinate actions with Fed East Capital Defense Div to fight insurgents in BAKU 7. CJSOTF continues SR and limited DA for TBM in occupied area and OSC 3 AO

16 I:\S-3\2 - S-3 Warrior Forge Plans Branch\2010 WF\WF2010 PLANNING SCENARIO\WF 10 Scenario\RTW products to Cadet Command B-C PIPELINE US UNITS KEMALIA AEF IV Fed West XXX 78 ID XX HD X DON 4 X OOO Fed East SAPA TF 61 5 MEB Ariana forces continue integrated area defense, regular forces infiltrate behind Fed defense to establish resistance in unoccupied areas, IO campaign continues, air force remains grounded. CJTF continues to build force: CORPS establishes AO for 78 ID and 74 ID CORPS moves into AO and assumes stability mission while continuing to build force, secures key terrain ID HQ takes command of 1-74 HBCT and 1/2 Inf (FED) and continues defense while building forces 4. FED East rebuilds forces, fights for oil platforms, maintains calm in BAKU 5. FED West rebuilds forces, maintains LOC for onward movement, fights insurgents 6. JFACC continues to fly in support of JFLCC to destroy identified forces, TBM and WMD 7. CJSOTF continues SR and limited DA for TBM in occupied area and OSC 3 AO Oil Fields 1-57 I R II MEF X 5MEB 74 xx 76 DONOVIA GORGAS MINARIA INITIAL ENTRY & SHAPING OPERATIONS PHASE IIIb OPERATION WESTERN PEACE ARIANA ATROPIA U OSC 2 OSC 3 OSC 1 X FED 21 X 174

17 I:\S-3\2 - S-3 Warrior Forge Plans Branch\2010 WF\WF2010 PLANNING SCENARIO\WF 10 Scenario\RTW products to Cadet Command B-C PIPELINE US UNITS TF 61 5 MEB KEMALIA 2 2 XX CD XX HD 15 XX FED 2 XX FED 9 XX FED XXX Oil Fields SAPA X FED xx DONOVIA GORGAS MINARIA DECISIVE OPERATIONS PHASE IV OPERATION WESTERN PEACE ARIANA ATROPIA U OSC 3 XXX X FED 74 xx Ariana forces defend in complex terrain, infiltrate regular and SF forces into coalition held territory, disrupt LOC. CJTF conducts counter-offensive to reestablish Atropian sovereignty. 1. CJFLCC counter-offensive phase with Federation forces defending along established line, 10 CORPS and FED East forces attack Ariana forces CORPS plan has 74 ID attack as main effort to destroy forces in AO, re-establish border; 78 ID conducts stability ops in AO, b/p to assume attack mission from 74 ID; 1/2 Inf (FED) assigned to 78 ID 2. CJFACC supports ground operations 3. CJFMCC provides forces to CJFACC and TF 61 as CJTF rapid reaction force 4. CJSOTF forces conduct SR to provide target information to CJFACC for TBM and massing OSC 3 forces

18 I:\S-3\2 - S-3 Warrior Forge Plans Branch\2010 WF\WF2010 PLANNING SCENARIO\WF 10 Scenario\RTW products to Cadet Command 4 X B-C PIPELINE US UNITS BTC PIPELINE TF 61 5 MEB U KEMALIA XX FED XX FED XX FED XX CD XX HD 4 X OOO 3 X X 2 Oil Fields SAPA 78 xx DONOVIA GORGAS MINARIA STABILITY OPERATIONS PHASE V OPERATION WESTERN PEACE ARIANA ATROPIA 1-57 I R 74 xx OSC 3 Ariana regular forces withdraw to Ariana territory leaving behind SF cells, IO campaign designed to support Atropian insurgents. CJTF transitions to Stability Operations phase ID and 74 ID continue search and destroy for Ariana forces, secures AO and conducts stability operations th Ranger Bn conducts training with Federation forces. 3. CJFACC maintains air supremacy, begins redeployment of AEF III forces 4. CJFMCC maintains TF 61 in Black Sea as CJTF reserve 5. CJSOTF conducts SR and DA within Ariana OSC 3 AO SBCT redeploys through Romania IBCT, 1-74 HBCT and 3-76 SBCT arrive in country and conduct relief operations with units of 74 and 78 ID - - CC REGTS DEPLOY ISO OPS 8. Deployment of coalition forces complete, re- deployment set to begin, newly arrived forces integrated into UE and Federation Ground Forces for stability operations

19 I:\S-3\2 - S-3 Warrior Forge Plans Branch\2010 WF\WF2010 PLANNING SCENARIO\WF 10 Scenario\RTW products to Cadet Command Phase 1 begins RSOI process with Regiments deploying to Atropian Theater of Operations; occupying the Intermediate Staging Base (ISB) Lewis. Regiments complete combat preparations by verifying Soldier physicals, receiving additional equipment, and completing individual training. Ends with AO Navigation certification. (CC FRAGO 1 – AA/Training Execution) Phase 2 begins with movement to secure Assembly Areas 1 & 2 in order to conduct and individual and collective training required for small-unit level combat operations. Ends with completion of RSOI and movement to Tactical Training Bases (TTB) vicinity of the International Border. (CC FRAGO 2 – TTB and Combat Operations) Phase 3 begins with occupation of either TTB East or West and conduct of squad and section patrols ISO stability operations. Units will BPT conduct reconnaissance, raids, ambushes, and other combat operations IOT prevent enemy forces from influencing the local population. Ends when relieved by follow-on forces. (CC FRAGO 3 – Recovery and Redeployment) Phase 4 begins with return to ISB Lewis; Regiments will complete operations and conduct recovery in preparation for redeployment. Ends with Soldiers departing AOR and arriving back at Home Station. OPERATION WARRIOR FORGE

20 I:\S-3\2 - S-3 Warrior Forge Plans Branch\2010 WF\WF2010 PLANNING SCENARIO\WF 10 Scenario\RTW products to Cadet Command Lake Ag Gol x x xx x x AOR

21 I:\S-3\2 - S-3 Warrior Forge Plans Branch\2010 WF\WF2010 PLANNING SCENARIO\WF 10 Scenario\RTW products to Cadet Command XXX X ATROPIA I ARIANA X 276 TTB West TTB East OPERATION WARRIOR FORGE AOR

22 I:\S-3\2 - S-3 Warrior Forge Plans Branch\2010 WF\WF2010 PLANNING SCENARIO\WF 10 Scenario\RTW products to Cadet Command 22 Intermediate Staging Base (ISB) Lewis FLRC CA TACTICS WEST TTB RON 6 x Nights 1 st AID CBRN US Weapons Conf 1 AA 4 Nights PATROLLING 2 DAYs 6 Missions OPERATION WARRIOR FORGE Home Station Prep Road to War/PCI Squad STX Missions Squad STX Missions PATROLLING 2 DAYs 6 Missions LAND NAV RON 2 Days Biv Shower Rotation RON Billets/Biv Maneuver RON PB Mobilization Reception(Barracks/Admin/Log) Days Staging (Individual Training) Days 5-11 Onward Movement (Team/Squad Training) Days Integration (Collective Training/Rehearsals) Day 14 Deployment into Theater (Squad/Section Operations) Days TACTICS EAST TTB RON 6 x Nights Maneuver RON PB Redeployment Day 23 Returnto Home Station Demobilization (Retraining, Final Assessments, Graduation) Days PHASE I PHASE II PHASE III PHASE IV

23 I:\S-3\2 - S-3 Warrior Forge Plans Branch\2010 WF\WF2010 PLANNING SCENARIO\WF 10 Scenario\RTW products to Cadet Command The following information on the culture of Atropia/Ariana is for situational awareness and understanding. These cultural nuances are merely another tool to help Soldiers make decisions in the COE. These suggestions are intended solely as guidance to help assist the units in executing their directed missions. They are not an attempt to undermine or substitute for SOPs, ROE, or Commander’s Guidance. GESTURES Culture based upon loyalty to family, clan, tribe, and region before loyalty to nation Old age is respected and honored; emphasis on obeying elders Sense of time is casual and fluid; negotiations are normally slow and extended No concept of personal space; there is no “3 foot American bubble” Don’t move away if an Atropian “invades your space” Public Display of Affection common between same sexes is accepted and often expected Honor most important virtue: external public perception of honor Never criticize in public Hospitality closely linked to honor – refusal is an insult CAUCASUS REGION CULTURE Primary language is Spanish but many in region speak some English Primary religion in the region is Shi’a Muslim

24 I:\S-3\2 - S-3 Warrior Forge Plans Branch\2010 WF\WF2010 PLANNING SCENARIO\WF 10 Scenario\RTW products to Cadet Command CAUCASUS REGION CULTURE GESTURES “Losing” not “Retreating” is considered a shame; will often retreat in order to avoid shame and “live to fight another day” Don’t engage women socially Don’t shake a female’s hand unless she offers it first Women are the custodians of family honor; rude to inquire about a female member of their family; Don’t look, touch or ask Don’t blatantly cross your legs Don’t show bottoms of your feet; means that you think person is lower than dirt Shame equals humiliation; difficult to say ‘no’ to a request because it is impolite; may intentionally mislead instead; “Yes” may mean I understand and not “I agree” Don’t use finger or hand gestures Non-verbal signals or body language are a large part of communication in region; Certain gestures, while common in U.S., may be offensive and essentially disrupt message you are intending to convey The “okay” sign of thumbs up is actually a form of a local curse Sense of time is much more casual than the American sense of time; Americans are very time-conscious and punctuality is important; However, Atropian culture is more relaxed in its view of time.


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