Presentation on theme: "Medieval Japan and Korea"— Presentation transcript:
1Medieval Japan and Korea PreviewMain Idea / Reading FocusJapan’s Warrior SocietyThe Tokugawa ShogunateMedieval KoreaMap: Japan and KoreaVisual Study Guide / Quick FactsVideo: The Impact of the Samurai Tradition on Japan Today
2Medieval Japan and Korea Main IdeaDuring the medieval period, a feudal warrior society developed in Japan, while Korea’s rulers endured invasion and turned to isolation.Reading FocusWhat were the key characteristics of the feudal warrior society in Japan?How did the Tokugawa Shogunate rule Japan, and in what ways did the culture flourish during the period?How did the Choson dynasty shape events in medieval Korea?
3Japan’s Warrior Society By the 1100s, central government losing control of the empireLocal clans fighting for power and land, no law and orderBandits roamed countryside, landowners hired armies of samurai, trained professional warriorsUse of samurai, trained professional warriors, developed into feudal warrior society in JapanSimilar to feudal system in EuropeIn exchange for allegiance, military service, noble landowners gave property, payment to samuraiFeudalism and SamuraiUnlike in Europe, where knights were usually paid with land grants, only most powerful samurai received landMost paid with food, usually riceThose given land did not work, live on landPayment for SamuraiThe samurai’s lands were worked by peasants, who gave the samurai money or food for payment each year.
4Warrior Role Societal Privileges Main role of samurai, that of highly skilled warriorWore armor, were skilled with many weapons, often fought on horsebackExpected to be in fighting form all the time, ready to do battle should need ariseSocietal PrivilegesAs time passed, samurai rose in status in society, enjoyed many privilegesCrowds parted to let them pass when samurai walked down streetPeople dropped eyes out of respect—and fear—because samurai had right to kill anyone who showed disrespect
5Samurai Code of Ethics Discipline Zen Buddhism Samurai followed strict code of ethics, known as Bushido, “the way of the warrior”Bushido required samurai to be courageous, honorable, obedient, loyalWord samurai means “those who serve;” each had to serve, obey his lord without hesitation, even if samurai, family suffered as resultSamurai who failed to obey, protect lord expected to commit seppuku—suicide by ritual disembowelmentStrove to live disciplined livesPursued activities requiring great focus, like writing poetry, arranging flowers, performing tea ceremoniesDisciplineMany samurai accepted Zen BuddhismSpread from China to Japan in 1100sZen stressed discipline, meditation as ways to focus mind, gain wisdomZen Buddhism
6Both men, women of samurai families learned to fight Role of WomenBoth men, women of samurai families learned to fightUsually only men went to warFemale samurai had to follow BushidoWere prepared to die to protect home, family honorSamurai women honored in Japanese societyCould inherit propertyAllowed to participate in business
7Rise of the Shoguns Yorimoto Shogun Rule For most of the 1100s, Japan had no strong central government. Local nobles, the heads of powerful clans, fought for power.Minamoto family defeated rival clan to become Japan’s most powerful clan1192, clan leader Minamoto Yoritomo forced emperor to name him shogun, “general,” Japan’s supreme military leaderShogun ruled in emperor’s nameYorimotoEmperor remained at top of society, but became mere figureheadFor nearly 700 years shoguns ruled JapanYoritomo allowed emperor to hold court at Heian, later known as KyotoShogun formed military government at KamakuraShogun Rule
8New Threats Kamakura Shogunate Weakened Shogunate Kamakura Shogunate, military dynasty, ruled Japan until 13331200s, Kamakura Shogunate faced major threat—Mongols1274, again in 1281, large Mongol fleets attacked JapanEach time Japanese defeated them, with help of powerful storm that wiped out enemy fleetKamakura ShogunateJapanese referred to storms as kamikaze, “divine wind”; believed they showed that the gods favored JapanMongol invasions weakened Kamakura ShogunateMany lords thought shogun had not rewarded them enough; loyalties broke down1338, Shogunate overthrownWeakened Shogunate
9Rebellion and Order Daimyo Fortifications Firepower A new shogunate took power but was too weak to gain control of Japan. With the loss of centralized rule, Japan splintered into many competing factions.Numerous local daimyo, powerful warlords with large estates, gained control of territories, battled for powerDaimyo built large fortified castles to defend landsDaimyoCastles often on hills, protected by walls, surrounded by waterTowns often grew up around themDaimyo began to use peasants as foot soldiers, samurai on horsebackFortifications1543, Portuguese introduced firearmsDaimyo began to arm soldiers with gunsSome samurai refused to use themDied wielding swords against superior firepowerFirepower
10Ambitious Men Generals Take Control Tokugawa Ieyasu 1500s, three strong daimyo worked to take control of JapanOda Nobunaga, first to arm soldiers with guns, defeated opponents easilyBy death in 1582, controlled half of JapanToyotomi Hideyoshi, Oda’s greatest general, continued efforts; by 1590, controlled most of JapanGenerals Take Control1600, Tokugawa leyasu won decisive battleGained complete control of all Japan1603, emperor made Tokugawa shogunEvent began the Tokugawa ShogunateTokugawa Ieyasu
11What features defined Japan’s feudal warrior society? Find the Main IdeaWhat features defined Japan’s feudal warrior society?Answer(s): Samurai gave military service in exchange for property or payment; shoguns ruled in the name of the emperor; daimyo were powerful warlords.
12The Tokugawa Shogunate Strong Central GovernmentTokugawa leyasu established capital at quiet fishing village, Edo, now TokyoEstablished strong central governmentTokugawa shoguns brought about period of relative unity, peace, stabilityTokugawa RuleTokugawa shoguns closely controlled daimyo, who still held local level powerTo keep loyal, shoguns required daimyo to live in Edo periodically, leave families there year-round as “hostages”Forced daimyo to maintain two residences; attempt to preclude from rebellingProsperityStability, peace of Tokugawa rule brought prosperity to JapanAgricultural production rose, population and cities grewEconomic activity increasedNew roads linked main cities, castle towns, improving trade
13Rigid Feudal System Top of Society Shogun, Daimyo Ruling Warrior Class Under Tokugawa rule, Japan’s strict feudal system more rigidAt top of society, emperorOnly a figureheadShogun, DaimyoNext was shogun, held real power as military rulerBelow shogun, daimyo—owed shogun loyaltyRuling Warrior ClassUnder daimyo, samurai who served themEmperor, shogun, daimyo, samurai made up ruling warrior classThree Lower ClassesBelow ruling warrior class were three classesPeasants, artisans, merchants
14Lower Classes Rules Peasants Honor and Some Status Members of lower classes could not rise in social statusCould not serve in military or government, or hold government positions that might challenge power of warrior classPeasantsPeasants made up vast majority—about 80 percent—of Japan’s populationForbidden to do anything but farmingSupported selves by growing rice, other crops on daimyo, samurai estatesHonor and Some StatusIn Japan, farming considered honorable tradePeasants enjoyed relatively high status, just below samuraiHowever, peasants paid most of taxes, led hard lives
15Artisans and Merchants Below peasants were artisansArtisans often lived in castle towns; made goods like armor, swordsMerchants at bottom of societyNot honored because did not produce anythingMerchants often grew wealthyCould use wealth to improve social positionDuring Tokugawa period, women’s status gradually declinedMany led restricted livesHad to obey male head of household absolutelyEven samurai class women lost many rights, freedomsWomenRole of male samurai changedPeace put many out of workNot allowed to engage in tradeMany ronin—masterless samurai—fell on hard timesSome became farmers, others warriors for hire, still others banditsMale Samurai
16Relations with the West The prosperity of the Tokugawa Period went hand in hand with Japan’s increasing contact with Europeans.Initially the Japanese welcomed European traders and missionaries and the new ideas, products and technologies that they brought.Trade with Europe boosted Japan’s economyChristian missionaries changed Japanese societyMany Japanese became Christian; soon samurai could be heard chanting Christian prayers in battleChangesOver time Tokugawa shoguns grew concerned with spread of Christianity; began to persecute Christians, kill missionariesAlso began to restrict foreign trade, travelBanned building large shipsPeriod of IsolationBy 1650, Japan had shut its doors to all Europeans except the Dutch. Japan continued this policy for more than 200 years.
17Feudal Culture Art and Literature Theater Japan’s growing cities became centers of culture during the feudal period.In art, colorful woodblock prints called Ukiyo-e, “pictures of the floating world,” became popularIn literature, realistic stories became popular, as well as form of poetry called haikuThree lines with 17 syllables; many haiku deal with themes of nature, harmonyArt and LiteratureIn theater, Noh drama developed, 1300sSlow-moving Noh plays told stories through use of masks, stylized dance, music1600s, new type of theatre with more action, plot, humor—kabukiWomen initially performed kabuki, but later banned and replaced by menTheater
18What changes did Tokugawa rulers impose on Japanese society? SummarizeWhat changes did Tokugawa rulers impose on Japanese society?Answer(s): They required daimyos to live in Edo periodically and make expensive processions, some family members were kept hostage in Edo, a strict social structure was maintained, and they isolated Japan from outsiders.
19Medieval KoreaIn 1392, powerful general, Yi Song-gye gained control of KoreaEstablished Choson kingdomChoson, or Yi, dynasty became one of Korea’s longest ruling dynastiesLasted until 1910Formed government based on Confucianism
20Japan and China as Foes Prosperity and War Hermit Kingdom During this period, Korea prosperedProduced many cultural achievements, including creation of Korean alphabetLate 1500s, Japan invaded twiceKoreans held off Japanese using ironclad warships with cannons; also received help from Ming ChinaProsperity and WarFighting with Japan left Korea in ruinsEarly 1600s, Chinese invadedBy 1640s, Korea had become vassal state to Qing dynasty in ChinaAs result, Choson kings increasingly isolated Korea, except for trade with ChinaIn West, Korea became known as “Hermit Kingdom” because of isolationHermit Kingdom
22How did foreign influences both help and hurt Korea? AnalyzeHow did foreign influences both help and hurt Korea?Answer(s): helped—Korea's government was formed on Confucianism, which was a foreign influence; harmed—Chinese and Japanese invaded Korea