Presentation on theme: "UNIT 4 A New Nation Part 1-George Washington Part 2-John Adams"— Presentation transcript:
1 UNIT 4 A New Nation Part 1-George Washington Part 2-John Adams Part 3-Thomas JeffersonPart 4-War of 1812Part 5-James MonroePart 6-Supreme Court CasesUNIT 4 A New Nation
2 America’s 1st President Part 1 George WashingtonAmerica’s 1st PresidentPart 1
3 Part 1- Washington Takes Office Washington was the top vote getter2nd runner up was John Adams – becomes the Vice-PresidentApril 30, 1789 – inaugurated/sworn in New York CityInauguration – the ceremony in which the President takes the oath of office
4 Taking office…All eyes were on him – everything he did set a precedent for following presidentsPrecedent – an act or a decision that sets an example for others to follow.Congress decided to call him“Mr. President”
5 Washington’s Challenges Washington faced several major challenges as he worked to create a functioning federal republic and as he worked to establish the foreign and domestic policies for the United StatesDefine the authority of the central governmentCreate a stable economic systemBuild a militaryMaintain national securityConduct foreign relationsEnter into treaties with Indian tribes
6 The First Cabinet…Congress created departments to help the President lead the nationSecretary of WarSecretary of TreasurySecretary of StateAttorney General
7 Turn to page 259-American republic Find who the first cabinet members were and answer it on the next slide in your notes.Tg
9 Class ActivityIf you were president and you had to assign members of this class to serve in your cabinet today, who in the class would fit best in each of these roles and why?Secretary of StateSecretary of TreasuryAttorney GeneralSecretary of WarWho?________Who?_________Why would they be good in this role?
10 Economic Problems… $54 million in national debt National debt: the total amount of money that a government owes to othersHamilton created a plan that reflected his belief in a strong central governmentThought that the government should encourage business and industry (free enterprise)
11 Hamilton’s Financial Plan (as Secretary of Treasury) Pay off all war debtsCreate a national bankEstablish a whiskey taxCreate protective tariffsEstablish the nation’s creditPlace to deposit collected taxesLed to Whiskey RebellionEnded up hurting American businesses and farmers
12 Hamilton’s Financial Plan (as Secretary of Treasury) He also promised to build a new capital city in Virginia (later named Washington DC)
13 Hamilton’s Financial Plan (as Secretary of Treasury) The only part of Hamilton’s plan that was not approved was the protective tariff
14 THOUGHT SPOTImagine you are a representative in Congress in Would you have supported Hamilton’s financial plan? Why or why not?
15 STOP Students read, “Alexander Hamilton” (green class set) Student answer 8 questions about Hamilton’s life.
16 ConflictMadison and Jefferson believed Hamilton’s plan would only benefit the wealthyThey also believed the Constitution did not give the federal government the right to create a national bankA rift begins to form among Washington’s government officials, andpolitical parties begin to arise
17 First 2 Political Parties FederalistsDemocratic-Republicans (often called just Republicans)Which political party would you have been during our early republic?Answer the questions on the following slides on your packets to see which party back then best fits you!
18 1. What kind of Government would you support? Strong National/Federal GovernmentLimited National Government with States’ Rights
19 2. Who should we be closer allies/friends and trading partners with? French British
20 3. Which type of Economy? Economy based upon Farming Economy based upon Business and Shipping
21 4. Should we have national bank?` Favored a National Bank Wanted State Banks to control their own moneyWanted State Banks to control their own money
22 5. Your Interpretation of the Constitution Loose constructionLoose construction-means that the federal government can take reasonable actions that the constitution does not specifically forbid“Can be flexible when need be”Strict construction- people who favor strict constitution think that that federal government should do only what the constitution specifically says it can do“Means what it says”
23 6. Biggest Governmental Fear Fearful of a Government Ruled by angry uneducated mobs…Shays and Whiskey RebellionFearful of a Government ruled by one person or a powerful few….Monarchy, Tyrant or Dictator
24 7. Who should be in charge of the government? “The rich and educated should rule because they have a vested interest in and knowledge of government.”“The common people should have more say in the government. After all, they make up the greatest majority of Americans.”
25 How to DISCOVER your results. Put an “F” for “Federalist,” next to any of those on the next slide you put on your listPut a “R” for “Republican-Democrat”, next to any on the 2nd slide that you put on your list.
26 FEDERALISTS LEADER Alexander Hamilton Pro-British Strong Federal governmentWealthy & EducatedlooseconstructionistsMerchantsFEDERALISTS LEADER
27 Democratic-REPUBLICANS Thomas JeffersonPro-FrenchFavored States’ rightsOpen to all adult malesLEADER OFDemocratic-REPUBLICANSSTRICTconstructionistsFarmers
28 Which did you have the most of? F or R? Circle your result on the top. RESULTSWhich did you have the most of?F or R? Circle your result on the top.
29 Computer LabOn December 17th Mrs. Auger’s class will go to computer lab and compete political survey on the website….Which political party do you best identity with today?
30 Causes Differences 1.philosophy of government 2.interpretation of Constitution3.economic interests4.perspective on foreign affairs
31 Effects 1. 2 parties can propose different solutions 2. Each party nominates candidates3. Political parties become a way of American life
32 Federalists vs. Democratic-Republicans Main Party LeadersFederalistsDemocratic-RepublicansAlexander Hamilton, John AdamsThomas Jefferson, James Madison
33 Federalists vs. Democratic-Republicans Constitutional ViewsFederalistsDemocratic-Republicans“Loose” – should take necessary steps to govern the nation“Strict” – should only have powers stated in the Constitution
34 Federalists vs. Democratic-Republicans Views on GovernmentFederalistsDemocratic-RepublicansFavored a strong national governmentFavored states’ rights
35 Federalists vs. Democratic-Republicans Views on Foreign PolicyFederalistsDemocratic-RepublicansPro-British – feared mob rulePro-French – sympathized with the want for freedom
36 Federalists vs. Democratic-Republicans Main SupportersFederalistsDemocratic-RepublicansMerchants and manufacturers (wealthy)Farmers and skilled craftsmen
37 Federalists vs. Democratic-Republicans Who Should VoteFederalistsDemocratic-RepublicansOnly those who own property (wealthy)Open to all adult males
38 Whiskey Rebellion…Farmers living west of the Appalachian Mountains often converted their excess grain into whiskey, which was easier to carry over the mountains than bushels of grainThe new federal whiskey tax imposed by Congress caused great hostility among them
39 Whiskey Rebellion…Farmers in western Pennsylvania refused to pay the tax and threatened tax collectorsWashington quickly called up the militia to put down the rebellionWashington was ready to use force, but the rebel farmers fled before any fighting took place
40 Whiskey Rebellion…Proved the federal government was not afraid to use military force to enforce the lawThe WHISKEY REBELLION tested the will of the new government.Washington’s quick response proved to Americans that their new government would act firmly in times of crisis. The President also showed those who disagreed with the government that violence would not be tolerated.
41 Student Activity If you were Washington, what action would you take? Choose one and defend your choice. Explain.A. Ask Congress to repeal the whiskey tax.B. Work out a compromise with the farmers, reducing the tax on whiskey and increasing the tax on imported goods.C. Send an army to the area and force farmers to pay the tax.
42 Setting Up the Courts… the # of justices Constitution created the Supreme Court but left many things for Congress to decide, such as…the # of justiceshow much power the Supreme Court would havecreation of the federal court system
43 Judiciary Act of 1789Set up federal courts with the power to reverse state court decisionsWashington named John Jay as the first Chief Justice
44 Washington’s Foreign Policy & the French Revolution 1789 French farmers and poor – rebelled against King and Queen (who were beheaded)French people wanted a constitution with rights — like the US hadAmerica’s success in the American Revolution influenced the French Revolution
45 Washington’s Foreign Policy & the French Revolution 1789 France declared war on Britain in 1793US was put in an awkward positionJefferson – US should help because the French helped us in the American RevolutionHamilton – but Britain’s trade was too important to risk for war
46 Washington’s Foreign Policy & the French Revolution 1789 Washington issued the Proclamation of Neutrality in April 1793Stated that US would not get involved in European affairsPresident Washington refused to help the French against their governmentThis was a defeat to Jefferson; this along with other defeats led Jefferson to leave the cabinet
47 Most Important Precedent… Refused to run 3rd termWorried the executive branch would be too powerfulFollowed until Anyone know which president?
48 Washington Retires Served from 1789-1797 Greatly admired by the American people8 years in officecreated national unity2nd term – difficult due tosplits in political ideology
49 Farewell Advice – AVOID PDA! US should remain neutral dealing with other countries – avoid alliancesPolitical differences could weaken the nation – DO NOT split into political parties!Avoid national debt
50 Washington’s Farewell Address “ Tis our true policy to steer clear ofpermanent Alliances, with any portion of theforeign nations … to have them as littlepolitical connection as possible.”– George WashingtonFarewell Address, 1796Washington did not oppose foreign trade,but rejected alliances that could drag thenation into war. His advice guided foreignpolicy for many years!
51 Student writing activity Roll dice and multiply your answer times 2. Answer that question from your PINK HISTORICAL CHARACTER CARDS in regards to George Washington.Respond in packet.
53 The Election of 17961. The Federalists chose Vice President John Adams as their candidate for president and Charles Pinckney for vice president.2. The Republicans chose Thomas Jefferson as their candidate for president and Aaron Burr for vice president.
54 The Election of 17963. Adams was elected president with 71 electoral votes.4. At that time the person with the second most electoral votes became the vice president, Jefferson received 68 and became Adams vice president.5. This meant the president was from one party and the vice president from another party.
55 The XYZ Affair Jay’s Treaty with the British was a threat to France. 6. The French feltJay’s Treaty withthe British was athreat to France.7. Adams sent a delegation to Paris to resolve the dispute.8. Three French agents tried to bribe the U.S. delegates for a peace agreement.9. Adams was furious.10. Referring to the French agents as X, Y, and Z, Adams urged Congress to prepare for war.
56 Undeclared War with France 11. Congress strengthened the Army and created a Navy.12. Washington led the Army.13. U.S. and French ships fought several times.14. After two years, peace was finally made between France and the U.S.
57 STOP1. First the class will read text American Republic, pages 269 (Starting with The Election of 1796) through 2702. Each student will work on “On Set!” writing the story in a form of a movie for the XYZ affair.
58 Alien and Sedition Acts The threat of war made Americans more suspicious of aliens in the U.S.In 1798, the Alien and Sedition Acts were passed to protect the nations security.
59 Alien and Sedition Acts Three Parts:The Naturalization ActRequired that aliens be residents for 14 years instead of 5 years before they became eligible for citizenshipThe AlienandSedition ActsThe Alien ActsA series of laws that allowed the president to imprison aliens or send them out of the country if he considered them a threatThe Sedition ActsMade it a crime to speak, write, or publish “false, scandalous, and malicious” criticisms of the government
60 Alien and Sedition Acts Why they were passedThe federalist-controlled Congress wanted to:strengthen the federalgovernmentsilence Republican OppositionResultsDiscouraged immigration and led to some foreigners already in the country to leave.Convicted 10 Republican newspaper editors who had criticized the Federalist government.ReactionOpposition to the Federalists party began to grow.Led to movement to allow states to nullify (overturn) federal laws
61 The Federalist Party Divided The Federalists Party was divided on the issue of war. While they were arguing, Adams lost re-election to Jefferson.The Federalist’s also lost the majority in Congress.After the election of 1800, the Democratic-Republicans will take control for the 1st time.
63 Election of 1800 of Jefferson ending John Adams’s presidency The election results came in and the federalist party will lose control of the Executive BranchThe Democratic-Republican party will take control of both the Executive Branch and Legislative Branch
64 Marshall and the Judiciary John Adams had passed the Judiciary Act of 1801, and he appointed as many Federalist judges as he could before Jefferson could take officeJefferson could not doanything because federaljudges are appointedfor life!
66 Marbury v. MadisonWilliam Marbury was one of Adam’s last minute appointments (known as the “Midnight Appointments”). Adams named him as a justice of the peace for the District of Columbia.Madison (Jefferson’s secretary of state) refused to give him the job and Marbury sued!
67 Adams appointed John Marshall as the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court Marshall served as chief justice for over 30 years!
68 final say in interpreting The Supreme Court heard the case – ruled the law which Marbury sued under was unconstitutional…so he didn’t get the job!Although the court denied Marbury’s claim, it did establish the principle ofjudicial reviewSupreme Court has thefinal say in interpretingthe Constitution
69 By establishing judicial review, Marshall helped to create a lasting balance among the three branches.
70 STOPReturning due to popular demand! We will be doing the “text message” activity. One of you will be William Marbury and the other John Marshall. William needs to try and convince John Marshall to rule in his favor, and Marshall needs to text back why he won’t.In your texts you must include:1. 2 points from your notes(PRE-AP must have 3)2. Two hashtags that reference points from notes.
73 History Classes read pages 278-280 over Jefferson’s election STOP-READINGHistory Classes read pages over Jefferson’s electionPRE-AP additionally reads the print out reading over Thomas JeffersonExit question: Who’s side would you chose and why?
74 DEBATE ACTIVITYYou will be divided in groups of 5-6 and will be representing either John Adams or Thomas Jefferson in a debate.Each group will be given a packet with debate questions/ques. You will each be assigned one of the 6 questions and agree upon a representative to act as Adams or Jefferson.Part of your grade is to create banners, “buttons,” bumper stickers, or anything else you can think of to create for your political campaign to hold/wear while your representative is debating.
75 ArchitectureAdvised the architects on the construction of Washington D.C.designed his home, Monticello
76 Jefferson lived as he preached walked the two blocks from his boarding house to the Capitolround table for dinners so no one could sit at the head of the tableon his tombstone Jefferson chose not to list that he was president of the US!
77 Undoing Federalist Programs As a Republican president, he felt it was important to end some of the programs put into place by his Federalist predecessorsAlien and Sedition Acts (limited people voices)Taxes – including the Whiskey Tax(Supports Farmers)Cut government employees (small gov’t)Cut the size of the military (small gov’t)Public debt MUST be paid first! (No Debt)
78 READ YELLOW COPY ABOUT JEFFERSON’S ELECTION STOPREAD YELLOW COPY ABOUT JEFFERSON’S ELECTION
80 What did Jefferson see as “good government?” Believed the best government was one that governed least.Jefferson opposed special privileges for wealthy and sympathizes with the farmersInaugural Address:…a wise and frugal government, which shall restrain men from injuring one another, which shall leave them otherwise free to regulate their own pursuits of industry and improvement. And shall not take from the mouth of labor and bread it had earned. This is the sum of good government.Thomas JeffersonThink, Pair, ShareWhat did Jefferson see as “good government?”
82 The West in 1800The “West” – area between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi RiverThousands of settlers were moving to the regionMississippi River was the western border of the USWesterners political influence grew as their numbers did
83 Louisiana PurchaseWestern farmers need to use the Mississippi River and Port of New Orleans to send products to East CoastJefferson tried to rent the use of New Orleans Port from the FrenchNapoleon (French leader) would not rent but offered to sell ALL of LA Territory
85 Jefferson – Constitution did not say anything about a president’s right to buy land! Jefferson was a strict interpreter of the Constitution…BUT supported nation of small independent farmers – that required land!April 30, 1803 theLouisiana Purchase wasapproved for $15 million-3 cents per acre!The purchase doubledthe size of the US
87 Lewis and Clark Explore Jefferson planned an expedition to explore the Louisiana TerritoryJefferson chose Captain Meriwether Lewis to leadLieutenant William Clark was selected to oversee the volunteer force – called the Corps of DiscoveryThe Corps of Discovery were 40 men – physically fit, experienced outdoorsmen =Lewis and Clark Expedition
88 Meriwether Lewis Well qualified Expert hunter Trained by Jefferson in geography, mineralogy and astronomyKept journals
89 William Clark Skilled mapmaker Outdoorsman Natural leader Rugged explorer
90 Clark’s slave, York, joined them He was the first black man that Indians had ever seenExpert hunting skills
91 Pre-AP must be a political cartoon ACTIVITYEach student will create an advertisement for support for the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Include a picture and 2 sentences!Pre-AP must be a political cartoon
92 Lewis and Clark set out in the summer of 1803 from D.C. Reached St. Louis by winter-gateway to the WestThe explorers waited there until March 1804 when Louisiana was officially transferred to the United States.
93 Up the Missouri RiverMay 1804 – headed up the Missouri River in 1 shallow-bottomed riverboat and 2 canoesPresident Jefferson hoped they would find a water route across the continentThe expedition was also to establish good relations with the Native Americans and describe landscape, plants and animals they saw.
94 The first afternoon they traveled only 3 miles – boats going against current Late October – reached Mandan Indian villages (now North Dakota) and spent the winter with the friendly MandanFrench-Canadian and British trappers were not happy to see Americans in their fur trapping territory
95 Spring expedition set out again with French trapper, his 17-year-old wife, Sacagawea, and their babySacagawea was a Shoshone woman whose language skills and knowledge of geography were valuable to the explorers
96 On to the PacificThe Lewis and Clark Expedition stopped at the Great Falls of the MissouriTen mile long series of waterfallsIt took two weeks to get around the falls!They carried their boats and heavy suppliesThe explorers met with Sacagawea's brother who helped them cross the Rocky Mountains
97 The Return!Lewis and Clark will return to St. Louis, Missouri following basically the same route.They arrive 3 years and 3 weeks from the time they left!Their reports convince many Americans to move into the new U.S. Territory!
98 America Story of US-Westward VIDEOAmerica Story of US-WestwardMin 1-16 minutes
106 The Burning of D.C. British troops marched into city Dolly Madison (First Lady)gathered important papers and a portrait of George Washington then fled southBritish troops burned the executive mansion (White House) and the capitolThe British move and attacked Fort McHenry at Baltimore
107 STOPStudents complete “The War of 1812” activity, using descriptive language to explain the impact of the burning of Washington D.C.
113 Battle of New OrleansThe British prepared to attack New Orleans = cut off Americans trade on the MississippiBUTAndrew Jackson waiting for the British!Jackson’s American soldiers and pirates defeated the Brits
114 Jackson’s men dug trenches to defend themselves Jackson’s men dug trenches to defend themselves. British soldiers charged the American trenches. More than 2,000 British fell. Only seven Americans died!
115 Battle of New Orleans Play song on youtube.com “Battle of New Orleans”
116 Song-Battle of New Orleans In 1814 we took a little trip Along with Colonel Jackson down the mighty Mississipi We took a little bacon and we took a little beans And we caught the bloody British in a town in New OrleansWe fired our guns and the British kept a-comin' There wasn't nigh as many as there was a while ago We fired once more and they begin to runnin' On down the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico We looked down a river And we see'd the British come And there must have been a hundred of'em Beatin' on the drums They stepped so high And they made their bugles ring We stood by our cotton bales And didn't say a thing We fired our guns and the British kept a-comin' There wasn't nigh as many as there was a while ago We fired once more and they begin to runnin' On down the Mississippi to the Gulf of MexicoOld Hickory said we could take 'em by surprise If we didn't fire our muskets 'Till we looked 'em in the eye We held our fire 'Till we see'd their faces well Then we opened up our squirrel guns And really gave 'em - well weFired our guns and the British kept a-comin' There wasn't nigh as many as there was a while ago We fired once more and they begin to runnin' On down the Mississippi to the Gulf of MexicoYeah, they ran through the briars And they ran through the brambles And they ran through the bushes Where the rabbit couldn't go They ran so fast That the hounds couldn't catch 'em On down the Mississippi to the Gulf of MexicoWe fired our cannon 'til the barrel melted down So we grabbed an alligator and we fought another round We filled his head with cannon balls, and powdered his behind And when we touched the powder off the gator lost his mindWe fired our guns and the British kept a-comin' There wasn't nigh as many as there was a while ago We fired once more and they begin to runnin' On down the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico
117 Student Response:Write a 4-5 complete sentence summary of the song “The Battle of New Orleans.”________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
125 Time after War 1812 people not divided over political issues or war Era of Good FeelingsTime after War 1812 people not divided over political issues or warPATRIOTISM GROWS
126 MONROE DOCTRINE Was issued by President James Monroe in 1823 Was actually written by his Secretary of State, John Quincy AdamsLet the world know that the U.S. was now the “protector” of the western hemisphere
145 Chief Justice John Marshall The Plaintiff:William MarburyThe Judge:Chief Justice John MarshallThe Defendant:James Madison
146 John Adams lost to Thomas Jefferson in the Election of 1800. The CaseJohn Adams lost to Thomas Jefferson in the Election of 1800.John AdamsThomas JeffersonBefore leaving office, Adams appointed his Secretary of State, John Marshall, to Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. He also appointed 42 other Federalists to judiciary positions using the Judiciary Act of 1801.
147 Before taking the judgeship, John Marshall was to deliver (inform) the 42 new judges of their appointments. He was able to deliver only He assumed his successor, James Madison would deliver the rest.James Madison
148 James Madison was the new secretary of state, and President Jefferson told him not to deliver the appointments.William Marbury, appointee to Justice of the PeaceWilliam Marbury, an appointee, filed suit (sued)against James Madison because he did not get his appointment.You’rea judge
149 The IssueWhat are the powers of the Supreme Court, especially when making decisions about the Constitution?
150 The DecisionChief Justice John Marshall, declared that Madison should have delivered the appointment to Marbury, but the Court also argued that the Judiciary Act which Marbury used to force his appointment was unconstitutional.
151 Constitutional Significance 1. Judicial Review: The case established the Supreme Court’s right to review acts of the President and Congress and declare them unconstitutional.
152 2. The Supreme Court became the final authority on what the Constitution really means. In Marshall’s own words:“The Constitution is the supreme law of the land. It is emphatically the duty of the judicial departmentto say what the law is.”
153 3. Judicial review made the Supreme Court an equal partner in the United States government and an essential player in the system of checks and balances.Supreme CourtCongressPresident==
155 Chief Justice John Marshall The Plaintiff:James McCullochThe Judge:Chief Justice John MarshallThe Defendant:the state of Maryland
156 Many people opposed the constitutionality of the Bank of the U.S. No more bankState banks said the creation of the national banks presented unfair competition.In an effort to help state banks, Maryland issued a tax on the U.S. Bank of Baltimore.
157 The chief cashier of the Bank of the U. S The chief cashier of the Bank of the U.S., James McCulloch, refused to pay the tax.Maryland took McCulloch to court in the state court, and the ruling was that McCulloch had to pay the tax. McCulloch appealed to the Supreme Court.
158 The DecisionThe Supreme Court ruled in favor of McCulloch and the national government.
159 The IssueDoes the federal government have the power to create Congress-chartered institutions such as the Bank of the United States?Bank of the U.S.
160 Constitutional Significance 1. Chief Justice Marshall and the Court ruled that the national government (Congress) did have the authority to create the national bank….”necessary and proper clause “.
161 The power of the national government was strengthened The power of the national government was strengthened. Established the supremacy of federal law and the ability of Congress to exercise powers needed to carry out its duties
163 Chief Justice John Marshall The Plaintiff:Aaron OgdenThe Judge:Chief Justice John MarshallThe Defendant:Thomas Gibbons
164 Aaron Ogden was a licensed steamboat operator who had a monopoly (exclusivecontrol) on steamboat operations betweenNew York and New Jersey.Gibbons also operated steamboats between the two states but did not have a license.
165 Ogden won, but Gibbons issued an appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court. Ogden sued Gibbons to keep him from operating his unlicensed steamboat.Ogden won, but Gibbons issued an appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court.
166 Article I of the Constitution gives Congress the power to “regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States……..”
167 The IssueWho should regulate commerce (trade) the states or the federal government?
168 1. The Supreme Court expanded the Constitutional Significance1. The Supreme Court expanded themeaning of the definition of commerce to increase the national government’s power to regulate commerce.
169 2. The commerce clause gave the national government has the authority to control all areas of economic activity in the United States.
170 “Architect of the American constitutional system.” John Marshall“Architect of the American constitutional system.”
171 Until John Marshall became the 4th Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, the Court was seen as having little power, with almost no influence over the other two branches.PresidentCongressSupreme Court
172 In a series of brilliant decisions from , Marshall almost single-handedly gave new power to the Supreme Court.
173 Marshall established three basic principles that became the foundation of the federal union. 1. The principle of judicial review gave the Supreme Court power to determine if a law was unconstitutional.
174 2. The Supreme Court had the power to set aside laws of state legislatures when these laws were contrary to the federal Constitution.3. The Supreme Court had the power to reverse the decisions of state courts.
175 Marshall argued that it is necessary for those interpreting and living under the Constitution to treat it as a “living” document that can be accommodated to the changing needs of the American people=”Loose construction”.
176 STUDENTS COMPLETE 15 Questions Gallery Walk (pink copies)