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LEADERSHIP Banerjee 747007009/776660888.

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Presentation on theme: "LEADERSHIP Banerjee 747007009/776660888."— Presentation transcript:

1 LEADERSHIP Banerjee /

2 The ability to inspire confidence and support among the people who are needed to achieve organizational goals Leadership

3 Leadership Roles An expected set of activities or behaviors stemming from one’s job Figurehead Spokesperson Negotiator Coach and motivator Team builder Team player Technical problem solver Entrepreneur Strategic planner

4 Sources of Leader Satisfaction A feeling of power and prestige A chance to help others grow and develop High income Respect and status Good opportunities for advancement A feeling of “being in on” things An opportunity to control resources

5 Framework for Understanding Leadership

6 Essential Qualities of Effective Followers Self-management Commitment Competence and focus Courage

7 Traits, Motives and Characteristics of Leaders

8 Certain leadership traits are universally important; that is, they apply in all situations Universal Theory of Leadership

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10 Leadership Characteristics Categories Personality traits Motives Cognitive factors

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12 Leader Personality Traits General Personality Traits Traits observable both within and outside the context of work Task-Related Personality Traits Traits closely associated with task accomplishment

13 Figure 2-1 General Personality Traits of Effective Leaders

14 Figure 2-2 Task-Related Personality Traits of Leaders

15 Emotional Intelligence … refers to the ability to do such things as understand one’s feelings, have empathy for others, and regulate one’s emotions to enhance one’s quality of life.

16 Leadership Motives Leaders have an intense desire to occupy a position of responsibility for others and to control them. This desire is evident in four needs or motives, all of which can be considered task related.

17 Figure 2-3 Leadership Motives

18 Cognitive Factors Cognition refers to the mental process by which knowledge is gathered Leaders must have problem-solving and intellectual skills to effectively gather, process, and store essential information Six cognitive factors related to leadership effectiveness have been identified

19 Cognitive Factors and Leadership

20 The WICS Model of Leadership in Organizations This model of leadership encompasses and synthesizes wisdom intelligence, and creativity to explain leadership effectiveness

21 The WICS Model (cont’d) According to the WICS model, a leader needs following for the successful utilization of intelligence: Creative skills to generate new ideas Analytical skills to evaluate whether the ideas are good ones Practical skills to implement the ideas and to persuade others of their value.

22 Nature versus Nurture Are leaders born or are they made? Both. Individuals inherit a basic capacity to develop personality traits and mental ability that sets an outer limit on how extensively these traits can be developed Environmental influences, in turn, determine how much of an individual’s potential will be developed

23 Charismatic Leadership, Transactional Leadership, Transformational Leadership

24 Charisma Defined Charisma has been defined various ways Charisma is a Greek word meaning “divinely inspired gift” In leadership, charisma is a special quality of leaders whose purposes, powers, and extraordinary determination differentiate them from others

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26 Charisma: A Relationship Between the Leader and Group Members Key to charismatic leadership is the interaction between leader and group members Charismatic qualities must be attributed to the leader by group members Charismatic leaders use impression management to cultivate their relationships with group members

27 The Effects of Charisma Group members trust the leader’s beliefs have beliefs similar to those of the leader accept the leader unquestioningly have affection for the leader willingly obey the leader identify with and attempt to emulate the leader

28 The Effects of Charisma (cont’d) Group members have emotional involvement in the mission have heightened goals feel that they will be able to accomplish, or to contribute to the accomplishment of the mission

29 Figure 3-1 Halpert’s Dimensions of Charisma

30 Types of Charismatic Leaders Socialized charismatics restrain the use of power to benefit others Personalized charismatics exercise few restraints on power to serve their own interests

31 Types of Charismatic Leaders (cont’d) Office-holder charismatics attain their charisma from the position they hold Personal charismatics gain esteem from others’ faith in them as people Divine charismatics are endowed with a gift of divine grace

32 Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders Visionary Masterful communication skills Ability to inspire trust Able to make group members feel capable Energy and action orientation Emotional expressiveness and warmth Romanticize risk Unconventional strategies Self-promoting personality Dramatic and unique

33 Vision in Charismatic Leadership Vision is the ability to imagine different and better conditions and ways to achieve them A vision is a lofty, long-term goal Charismatic leaders inspire others with their vision

34 Communication Management by Inspiration Using metaphors and analogies to appeal to the intellect, imagination, and values of group members Gearing language to different audiences Management by Anecdote Inspiring and instructing team members by telling fascinating stories

35 Techniques for Developing Charisma Create visions for others Be enthusiastic, optimistic, and energetic Be sensibly persistent Remember names of people Make an impressive appearance Be candid Display an in-your-face attitude

36 Transformational Leadership The transformational leader helps bring about major, positive changes Transformational leaders move group members beyond their self- interests for the good of the group, organization, or society

37 Figure 3-2 How Transformations Take Place

38 Attributes of Transformational Leaders Charismatic Create a vision Encourage the personal development of their staff Provide supportive leadership Practice empowerment Innovative thinking Lead by example

39 Concerns About Charismatic Leadership According to the concept of leadership polarity, leaders are often either revered or vastly unpopular Charisma may not be necessary for leadership effectiveness Charismatic leadership has a dark side Some charismatic and transformational leaders neglect their social responsibility

40 Leadership Behaviors, Attitude and Styles

41 … is one who helps group members attain productivity, including high quality and customer satisfaction. An Effective Leader

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43 Dimensions of Leadership Behavior Consideration The degree to which the leader creates an environment of emotional support, warmth, friendliness, and trust Involves being friendly and approachable, looking out for the personal welfare of the group, keeping the group abreast of new developments, and doing small favors for the group

44 Dimensions of Leadership Behavior Initiating Structure Organizing and defining relationships in the group by engaging in such activities as assigning specific tasks, specifying procedures to be followed, scheduling work, and clarifying expectations for team members Also referred to as production emphasis, task orientation, and task motivation

45 Figure 4-1 Four Combinations of Initiating Structure and Consideration

46 Table 4-1 Task-Related Leadership Attitudes and Behaviors

47 Table 4-2 Relationship-Oriented Attitudes and Behaviors

48 Servant Leader A servant leader serves constituents by working on their behalf to help them achieve their goals, not the leader’s own goals. Places service before self-interest Listens first to express confidence in others Inspires trust by being trustworthy Focuses on what is feasible to accomplish Lends a hand Provides tools

49 360-Degree Feedback A formal evaluation of superiors based on input from people who work for and with them Often referred to as multisource feedback or multirater feedback Most often used for leadership and management development

50 Figure 4-2 A 360-Degree Feedback Chart

51 Leadership Style The relatively consistent pattern of behavior that characterizes a leader Often based on the dimensions of initiating structure and consideration Examples: “He’s a real command-and-control type,” “she’s a consensus leader.”

52 Participative Leadership Participative leaders share decision making with group members (“trickle-up leadership”) Three subtypes: Consultative leaders confer with group members Consensus leaders strive for consensus among group members Democratic leaders confer final authority to the group

53 Autocratic Leadership Autocratic leaders retain most of the authority for themselves Autocratic leaders make decisions confidently, assume that group members will comply, and are not overly concerned with group members’ attitudes toward a decision

54 Leadership Grid Styles The Leadership Grid is a framework for specifying the extent of a leader’s concern for production and people Benchmark Leadership Grid styles include: Authority-Compliance (9,1) Country Club Management (1,9) Impoverished Management (1,1) Middle-of-the-Road Management (5,5) Team Management (9,9)

55 Entrepreneurial Leadership Characteristics Strong achievement drive and sensible risk-taking High degrees of enthusiasm and creativity Tendency to act quickly when opportunity arises Constant hurry combined with impatience Visionary perspective

56 Entrepreneurial Leadership Characteristics (cont’d) Dislike of hierarchy and bureaucracy Preference for dealing with external customers Eye on the future

57 Gender Differences in Leadership Style One researcher concluded that men tended toward a command-and- control style. In contrast, women tended toward a transformational style, relying heavily on interpersonal skills. While researchers found leadership style differences between men and women, on the dimension of overall effectiveness, the sexes were perceived the same.

58 Contingency and Situational leadership, Decision making model

59 Leaders are most effective when they make their behavior contingent on situational forces, including group member characteristics. Contingency Approach


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