Presentation on theme: "World War I Chapter 18 Notes Objectives: Identify the causes of the war. Identify the major Alliances. Describe trench warfare & new technology used."— Presentation transcript:
World War I Chapter 18 Notes
Objectives: Identify the causes of the war. Identify the major Alliances. Describe trench warfare & new technology used in this war & discuss its impact. Identify turning points/battles. Identify & evaluate reasons for US involvement in World War I.
Causes of the War: Competition b/w countries: – Nationalism--Militarism – Imperialism Yrs. of instability in the Balkans – Overlapping ethnic & religious groups – Austria-Hungary & Serbia competing over control of Bosnia
“Powder Keg” of Europe
Spark: Assassination of Archduke F. Ferdinand of Austria by Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip – Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia
Archduke Franz Ferdinand & his family
The assassin: Gavrilo Princip ***VIDEO!
Europe divided: Triple Entente (Allied Powers) Serbia Russia France Britain Italy (1915) United States (1917)
Allied Powers (Triple Entente) George V [Br] Nicholas II [Rus] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Pres. Poincare [Fr]
Central Powers (Triple Alliance) Franz Josef [A-H] Enver Pasha [Turkey] Wilhelm II [Ger]
Schlieffen Plan Germany hoped to defeat France quickly by attacking from Belgium & cut-off Britain from the rest of Europe, then go after Russia
Central Powers’ Strategy: Schlieffen Plan: First Battle of Marne: – Schlieffen Plan fails – French are out gunned by Germans – Both sides dig in; War reaches stalemate
Trench Warfare: Both armies dug & occupied trenches for hundreds of miles – Rats, lice, unburied bodies, flooding, sickness & disease
Turkish soldiers in the trenches
Trench warfare: No man’s land— thin strip of bombed out land b/w trenches filled w/ barbed wire & land mines
No man’s land
New Weapons/ Technology: Machine guns Tanks Poison gas Submarines Airplanes
Real Flying Aces Eddie Rickenbacher, US Francesco Barraco, It. Eddie “Mick” Mannoch, Br. Willy Coppens de Holthust, Belg Rene Pauk Fonck, Fr. Manfred von Richtoffen, Ger. [The “Red Baron”]
Important Battles: First Battle of the Marne major German offensive Battle of Gallipolli * Battle of Verdun--Longest battle of the war; most casualties Battle of the Somme--1 st offensive for Br.; known for high casualty rate Second Battle of the Marne--last German offensive (poor attempt); final offensive of the war Battle of Argonne Forest-- heavy American casualties; American success
US Neutrality Wilson issues declaration of neutrality Americans see war as a European problem Tradition of isolationism Privately US favors Allied Powers Economically US does more business w/ Allied Powers
Events leading to U.S. involvement in WWI: Brit. Intercepting & searching U.S. ships German U-boat attacks Arms trading w/ Allies Zimmerman Note Lusitania
Sinking of the Lusitania
Apr. 1917—Congress declares war
Opposition to War: Quakers Mennonites Rep. Jeannette Rankin & Sen. Robert LaFollette, Jane Addams Socialist Party
Let’s Review: What were the causes of World War I? What were the 2 major alliances? Who made up each alliance? How was the war fought? What was some of the new technology used in World War I? What were some of the major turning points in the war? How did the US come to be involved in World War I?
Objectives: Describe how America mobilizes for war. Discuss how women’s roles changed during the war. Analyze how the war impacted the civil liberties of American citizens.
Selective Service Act: required men aged to register w/ local draft boards Pros: Build more democratic country by uniting a variety of people Indian citizenship (1924) Cons: Segregated units Blacks limited in the positions they could serve Conscientious objectors rejected
Army recruitment posters
Training Troops: New facilities built Medical exams Fighting drills
American Expeditionary Force: Convoy system Gen. John Pershing 1917—march through France 1918—began participating in fighting
The 369 th “Hell Fighters” were rewarded the Croix de Guerre for gallantry in battle and returned to the U.S. as heroes to African Americans. Sgt. Alvin C. York
The War Effort at Home Raise money: – Liberty & Victory bonds – increased taxes (War Revenue Act)
The War Effort at Home Daylight savings time Prohibition – 18 th Amendment – Volstead Act
The War Effort at Home War boards: – Food Admin. (Hoover) – Fuel Admin. (Garfield) – Railroad Admin. (McAdoo) – War Industries Board (Baruch) – War Labor Board (Taft & Walsh)
Spirit of ‘76
Mobilizing Workers: National War Labor Board – Arbitrates disputes b/w labor & business Union membership grew – Labor shortages & strikes Great Migration – Afr. Amer. To North & Cities
Mobilizing Workers Women worked outside home 19 th amendment passes
Women Munitions Workers
German women in a munitions factory
Woman ambulance driver
“Hello Girls” French speaking women hired as switchboard operators
The Red Cross
Russian female soldiers
“Mata Hari” Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle German Spy!
Propaganda: Committee on Public Information (George Creel) – Anti-German sentiments – Americanization
Impact of the War on the US: 1.Unemployment disappeared. 2.Expansion of “big government.” 3.Increased govt. regulation of econ. 4.Cooperation b/w public & private sectors. 5.New opportunities for disadvantaged groups.
Attacks on Civil Liberties Espionage Act Sedition Act Schenk v. United States
Gov. limit on rights: Espionage Act: – forbade actions that obstructed recruitment or promoted insubordination in the military – ordered the Postmaster General to remove Leftist materials from the mail – fines of up to $10,000 and/or up to 20 years in prison
Gov. limit on rights: Sedition Act: – Makes it a crime to speak against the purchase of war bonds or “willfully utter, print, write or publish any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language” about the US Govt., the US Constitution, or the US armed forces or to “willfully urge, incite, or advocate any curtailment of production of things necessary or essential to the prosecution of the war…with intent of such curtailment to cripple or hinder, the US in the prosecution of the war”
Schenck v. US Schenck v. US – in ordinary times the mailing of the leaflets would have been protected by the 1 st Amendment. - BUT, every act of speech must be judged acc. to the circumstances in which it was spoken. -The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theater and causing a panic. [Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes] - If an act of speech posed a clear and present danger, then Congress had the power to restrain such speech.
Let’s Review: How did the US mobilize for war? How did women’s lives change during the war? How were civil liberties restricted during the war?
Objectives: Discuss the Russian Revolution. Evaluate the end of the war, including the Treaty of Versailles & Wilson’s 14 Points Discuss the Influenza pandemic.
Russian Revolution: March Overthrew czar Bolsheviks seized power in Nov. Vladimir Lenin signed treaty w/ Central Powers & exited war Germans concentrate on France
The War Ends Second Battle of Marne— Germany’s last offensive – Allies push Germans back 3 times – German econ. is wrecked & people are starving…Germans surrender 1918 (Armistice)
Wilson’s 14 Points: 9 dealt w/ self determination & territorial disputes Causes of war Est. League of Nations Amer. Favored idea, Allies had mixed feelings & Germans rejected it
Treaty of Versailles: Divided Germany’s colonies & Ottoman Empire b/w Allies Est. mandate system Created new nations Germany takes full responsibility & pays reparations
Casualties of the War 8.5 million dead 21 million wounded
World War I Casualties
Most of Europe in ruins German econ. devastated
Results: U.S. Congress rejects League of Nations Unrest in Middle East Balfour Decision—Jewish homeland in Palestine Created League of Nations
Influenza Pandemic ,000 Americans killed by flu More Americans killed by flu virus than WWI
I had a little bird, Its name was Enza. I opened the window, And in-flu-enza
Let’s Review: What occurs in Russia & how does it impact the war? What document ends the war? – Was it fair? How does President Wilson respond to the end of the war? How does the influenza pandemic impact the US?