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BUSM 4177 / 4194 Leading for Change

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Presentation on theme: "BUSM 4177 / 4194 Leading for Change"— Presentation transcript:

1 BUSM 4177 / 4194 Leading for Change
Topic 4: Leadership power and influence

2 76 Learning Objectives Power and influence in leadership:
Understand the process by which power is acquired or lost in organisations. Understand the consequences of power for leadership effectiveness. Understand ways to use power effectively. Understand the different types of influence tactics used in organisations. Understand how the tactics are used to influence subordinates, peers, and superiors. Understand effective ways to use the tactics. 76

3 A non-tangible characteristic of a position-holder in an organisation
The capacity of one person to influence another A force that may be individually or organisationally based Defining Power Access to resources that others do not have Ability to reward or punish A persuasive personality trait X

4 77 Power Concepts Power Capacity of one party to influence another
A sense of direction (powerful to powerless) Only exists within a context Dynamic variable that may change with time or circumstance Authority Rights, obligations an duties associated with particular positions in organization Duty for those on the receiving end to obey May be limited in scope or context 77

5 Who or what has power in organisations … and how is it deployed?
Some conversation starters… X

6 French and Raven (1959) original power types
Reward Coercive Legitimate Referent Expert And more recently added: 6. Information 7. Ecological Position power Personal power 79 RMIT University© School of Management

7 Using the French and Raven power types
Yukl suggests how best to “deploy” each power type For example – deploying reward power: Offer the type of reward that people desire Offer rewards that are fair and ethical Don’t promise more than you can deliver Explain the criteria for giving rewards Provide rewards as promised if requirements are met Use rewards symbolically (not in a manipulative way) See textbook for examples of deploying other reward types 80 RMIT University© School of Management

8 A critical perspective
The four faces of power (Fleming and Spicer 2007) A critical perspective Coercion – one individual getting another to follow his/her orders Manipulation of agendas through behind the scenes politicking Domination over the preferences and opinions of participants Subjectification – people are moulded with certain understandings of themselves and the world around them (Fleming and Spicer 2007) Fleming, P and Spicer, A (2007) Contesting the Corporation: Struggle, Power and Resistance in Organisations, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. X RMIT University© School of Management

9 The four faces of power - application
COERCION Direct coercion is about getting another person to do something that he or she would otherwise not have done MANIPULATION Exclusion from decision making authority Power as manipulation - There is no direct exercise of power but an implicit shaping of issues considered important or irrelevant. DOMINATION Power that shapes our preferences, attitudes and political outlook Implication that power is used to achieve outcomes that are contrary to the individual’s interests Examples: Men dominating women Corporations dominating workers SUBJECTIFICATION Focus of the constitution of the very person who makes decisions The organisation moulds people into a certain type Use of knowledge to produce compliance The culture of the customer (but people often undermine these types of organisational cultures – there is resistance) X RMIT University© School of Management

10 The four faces of power – ways of resisting
RESISTING COERCION Refuse to do what the person in the position of power tells him / her to do. Aim to block the effects of power by undermining the domination rather than changing it RESISTING MANIPULATION Gain access to power in order to express voice: Internal – Women’s groups, trade unions External – social movements Sabotage the organisation / plan RESISTING DOMINATION “Escape” - ie mentally disengage from the world of work Use cynicism, scepticism and dis-identification in response to domination RESISTING SUBJECTIFICATION Create something that was not intended by those in authority Make use of parody or criticism eg Union newsletter X RMIT University© School of Management

11 The influence of power on leadership effectiveness
I hope I can convince the committee to agree to my proposal Leadership power Use with caution

12 The influence of power on leadership effectiveness (continued)
Effective Leaders: Have more expert and referent power Rely on personal power more than position power Have a moderate amount of position power 86

13 The influence of power on leadership effectiveness (continued)
Power and organisational change Expert and referent power for persuasion Personal and position power increase the likelihood of success Copyright© 2013 Pearson Education Leadership in Organizations

14 The influence of power on leadership effectiveness (continued)
Position power is an important source of influence Position power can enhance personal power Control over information complements expert power Reward power facilitates deeper exchange relationships Reward power enhances referent power Some coercive power is necessary to support legitimate and expert power Coercive power is needed to restrain disruptive influences 89

15 Influence Concepts Influence tactics – four major approaches (not mutually exclusive!) Impression management Provide praise, self-promote, offer unconditional help Political Influence decision-making, manipulate agendas, silence critics, deceive Proactive Change procedures, support change, allocate new tasks, provide assistance Reactive Resist unwanted influence, modify the request, undermine leader

16 Influence Concepts (continued)
Proactive influence is often labelled as the most ethical and desirable of the four tactics Research into the proactive approach has identified sub-types of this tactic. The graphic on the next slide is Gary Yukl’s view on how this could / should work. In his language, the “agent” is the person attempting to influence and the “target” is the person who is on the receiving end of the influence. REFLECTION POINT Is influence purely one-way (ie from the agent to the target)? Can you imagine a situation where the influence is bi-directional?

17 Influence Concepts (continued) Yukl’s definition of the 11 proactive influence subtypes

18 If resistance is anticipated a more intrusive tactic might be deployed
Influence Concepts (continued) The concept of an “escalation” or “sequencing” of tactics to achieve outcome Typically, a manager will start with the tactic that is least intrusive or resource-costly If resistance is anticipated a more intrusive tactic might be deployed People using power to influence employee behaviour have a responsibility to act ethically. REFLECTION POINT What influence tactic would you consider “intrusive” ? How might organisational or situational factors affect influence tactics?

19 Influence Concepts (continued) Influence outcomes

20 Review questions Which sources of power stem primarily from personal attributes and which sources of power stem from organisational position? What types of power are related most strongly to leadership effectiveness? Can multiple influence tactics be used at the one time? What example of “unethical” misuse of power can you suggest? Which influence tactics would you feel comfortable and confident to apply? Why? Thinking critically, what are the downsides of leadership power and influence?

21 Acknowledgements VERSION: 1
Presentation developed by Ian Woodruff, School of Management, RMIT University RMIT is proud to partner with Pearson Australia in the development of the customised resources for this course. This presentation draws on material from chapter four of the course textbook Sustainable Leadership people, technology and design – an RMIT Custom Publication, Pearson® Australia and is subject to copyright. Images included in this presentation are licenced under creative commons. Learn more about the creative commons scheme here. Graphics used in this presentation were created using Presenter Media Software licenced to Ian Woodruff, RMIT University. Presenter Media retains copyright for these graphics. VERSION: 1

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