3A brief overviewEnd of GLF – loss of power to Liu Shaoqi and Deng XiaopingPlan to make Mao figureheadMao initiated Socialist Education CampaignThis grew into Cultural Revolution (1966), aim to totally revise Chinese culture, key role of the Red Guards and youths
4Background Information In the early 1960s, Mao was on the political sidelines and in semi-seclusion.By 1962 he began an offensive to purify the party, having grown increasingly uneasy about what he believed were the creeping "capitalist" and antisocialist tendencies in the country.Mao continued to believe that the material incentives that had been restored to the peasants and others were corrupting the masses and were counterrevolutionary.
5Background Information To arrest the so-called capitalist trend, Mao launched the Socialist Education Movement ( )Primary emphasis was on restoring ideological purity, reinfusing revolutionary fervor into the party and government bureaucracies, and intensifying class struggle.There were internal disagreements, not on the aim of the movement but on the methods of carrying it out.Opposition came mainly from the moderates represented by Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping.
6Mao’s Plans For China and Need for Cultural Revolution The revolution was to destroy the four olds: old ideology, old thoughts, old habits and old customsThose who opposed Mao were publicly punishedFarm production fell, factory work stopped and schools closedAs a result there was no economy, many people had left and there was no educationIt was an enormous failure and Mao ended it in 1969
7Toward a Cultural Revolution Only PLA campaign successfulLin Biao Minister Defence – key role"Chairman Mao is a genius, everything the Chairman says is truly great; one of the Chairman's words will override the meaning of ten thousand of ours.”“Little Red Book”
8The Chinese People's Liberation Army is the Great School of Mao Zedong Thought
9Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) Great Proletarian Cultural Revolutioncommitment to revolution and “class struggle”power struggle to succeed MaoPhase I: the rise and fall of “Red Guards”Phase II: the rise and fall of Lin BiaoPhase III: the rise and fall of the “Gang of Four”
11Why a need for Cultural Revolution? Failure of Great Leap – masses capitalist1962 Mao tries to implement the Socialist Education Movement – re-educate massesLiu and Deng against, ‘unrealistic’ while countryside still struggling1963, Mao appeals directly to peopleParty cadres openly criticise themselves, but masses able to criticise them too
12Reasons Mao Wanted Cultural Revolution Mao felt that he could no longer depend on the formal party organization, convinced that it had been permeated with the "capitalist" and bourgeois obstructionists.He turned to Lin Biao and the PLA to counteract the influence of those who were allegedly "`left' in form but `right' in essence."The PLA was widely extolled as a "great school" for the training of a new generation of revolutionary fighters and leaders.
13Reasons for the Cultural Revolution? Remove oppositionRemold China so deeply that it could never change back in order to ensure the survival of revolutionary spiritObliterate the failure of the GLFUndermine intellectuals and bureaucrats and restore the peasant nature of China’s revolutionDifferentiate China from the USSR, which was too “revisionist”Test the young party members who had no experience
14Purpose of the Cultural Revolution Fundamental change in the way the Chinese people viewed the worldAim to totally replace older feudal attitudes and to replace with socialist attitudesMao’s bid for power?Lin Biao and Jiang Qing’s ambitions?Wu Han’s play – key (Hai Rui = Peng Dehuai, Emperor = Mao)
15Cultural Revolution (1966-68) The purpose of this movement was to:Restore Mao’s power and controlGet rid of Soviet style communismRenew the spirit of revolution in ChinaDestroy the rise of differentiation between the proletariat and bourgeois (he believed a hierarchy was increasing in development)
16Factions During the Cultural Revolution Maoist FactionClosely associated with MaoBelieved in continual revolution, mass campaignsBelieved in virtues of “red over expert”Members included Mao, Jiang Qing (wife) Ken ShangParty BureaucratsLeaders of the party apparatus in SecretariatBelieve in pragmatic economic development using incentives to increae productionRespected Mao but disliked his romantic views of changeGreat Leap policies were misplaced and damagingMembers included Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping
17Government Faction Military Faction Composed of governmental officials in administrationIdeologically closer to party bureaucrats but members has close personal relations with MaoKnew their skills would be necessary to administer ChinaHigh managerial abilityZhou Enlai identified with this factionMilitary FactionInternally divided between followers of Lin Biao who supported Mao and Lo Juijin who favored a strong, conventional PLAPeople’s militay vs. regular militaryImprovement in relations with Russia favored by PLA
18Views on Cultural Revolution Considerable intraparty opposition to the Cultural Revolution was evident.On the one side was the Mao-Lin Biao group, supported by the PLA; on the other side was a faction led by Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping, which had its strength in the regular party machine.Premier Zhou Enlai, while remaining personally loyal to Mao, tried to mediate or to reconcile the two factions.
20Communist China Under Mao Designed to renew revolutionary spirit and establish a more equitable societyMao wanted to put “intellectuals” in their placeSchools shut down – students revoltedRed Guards – students who attacked professors, government officials, factory managers
21The Cultural Revolution New MovementMid-1960s, Mao tried to regain power, prestige lost after Great Leap ForwardInitiated new movement called Cultural Revolution, sought to ride China of old ways, create society where peasants, physical labor were the idealRed GuardsCampaign meant eliminating intellectuals who Mao feared wanted to end communism, bring back China’s old waysMao shut down schools, encouraged militant students, Red Guards, to carry out work of Cultural Revolution by criticizing intellectuals, valuesDestruction of SocietyMao lost control; Red guards murdered hundreds of thousands of people; by late 1960s, China on verge of civil war before Mao regained controlCultural Revolution reestablished Mao’s dominance, caused terrible destruction; civil authority collapsed, economic activity fell off sharply
22Cultural Revolution (1966-1969) “Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution”Effort to revive interest in Mao’s ideas (and for Mao to regain power) after the failed Great Leap ForwardMao claimed that reactionary bourgeoisie elements were taking over the partyCall for youths to engage in post-revolutionary class warfareRed Guards (consisting of young people) marched throughout ChinaOlder alleged reactionaries removed from positions of power
23What Was The Cultural Revolution (1966-68) Red Guards (groups of youths who banded themselves together) were encouraged to criticize those who Mao deemed untrustworthy with regards to the direction he wanted China to take. No-one was safe from criticismSchools were seen as being elitist, so they were closed. Students were encouraged to work beside peasants in the countryside to enhance their understanding of the revolutionEveryone had a file on them, many were tortured or killed (500,000), humiliated in public, committed suicide, or sent to labor camps
24What was the Cultural Revolution? The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (无产阶级文化大革命), was started in 1966.It was set up to secure Maoism and eliminate Political Opponents.It officially ended in 1969, when Mao himself admitted that the revolution had ended.Over this period of three years, many died and millions more imprisoned. The leaders of the Cultural Revolution remained in power, even after the end of the Revolution.The period is widely considered to have been a period of economic stagnation.
25What was the Cultural Revolution The Cultural Revolution took place from 1966 to 1976.Mao Zedong was the leader of the Cultural Revolution.He wanted to establish a more effective bureaucracy.Mao organized a group of young people, and their goals were to spread the idea of socialism around China.The Cultural Revolution, instead of creating a better China, left great negative impacts on the people and the economy of China, and also affected foreign countries as well.
26What was the Cultural Revolution? The Cultural Revolution could also be described as the time when young Chinese citizens, called Red Guards, fought against the democratic society.Much respect and many rewards were given to the Red Guards; therefore Mao was able to gather many student volunteers.The Cultural Revolution was based on the belief that school should be simpler, and the more books a person read, the more unintelligent they become.Mao wanted to brainwash Chinese society - especially young people - and create Chinese citizens who would grow up to become uneducated and mindless.
27Key aspects of the Cultural Revolution Personality Cult (strongest 1968)Amongst the young in particularCult built around MaoDeep sense of gratitude to Mao
28The Militant Phase,By mid-1965 Mao had gradually but systematically regained control of the party with the support of Lin Biao, Jiang Qing (Mao's fourth wife), and Chen Boda.In late 1965 a leading member of Mao's "Shanghai Mafia," Yao Wenyuan, wrote a thinly veiled attack on the deputy mayor of Beijing, Wu Han.In the next six months Mao and his supporters purged or attacked a wide variety of public figures, including State Chairman Liu Shaoqi and other party and state leaders.By mid-1966 Mao's campaign had erupted into what came to be known as the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, the first mass action to have emerged against the CCP apparatus itself.
29The PLA reading Mao’s Little Red Book Elena Songster & Jessica Stowell, OU
30Effects of the Cultural Revolution and Post-Cultural Revolution Events
31Diplomatic Breakthrough 1971, PRC became the representative of China in UN (replaced ROC)
32“Ping-Pong Diplomacy”: U. S. Players at Great Wall, 1971
33Diplomatic Breakthrough 1972, President Nixon visited Beijing
35Effects of Cultural Revolution Schools and factories closed.Decline in the Industrial Production by 12% between 1966 and 1968The economy slowedCivil war was close in hand
36Effects of Cultural Revolution The result of the unfettered criticism from China's exuberant youth was massive civil disorder, punctuated also by clashes among rival Red Guard gangs and between the gangs and local security authorities.The party organization was shattered from top to bottom.The Central Committee's Secretariat ceased functioning in late 1966.The resources of the public security organs were severely strained.
37Effects of the Cultural Revolution Many suffered and died (500,000 – 2 million)Housing space increasedAn entire generation lost much of its schoolingIntellectuals suffered mostThere was a loss of cultural heritage
38Effects of Cultural Revolution: Reactions of PLA Faced with imminent anarchy, the PLA--the only organization whose ranks for the most part had not been radicalized by Red Guard-style activities--emerged as the principal guarantor of law and order and the de facto political authority.Although the PLA was under Mao's rallying call to "support the left," PLA regional military commanders ordered their forces to restrain the leftist radicals.The PLA also was responsible for the appearance in early 1967 of the revolutionary committees, a new form of local control that replaced local party committees and administrative bodies.The revolutionary committees were staffed with Cultural Revolution activists, trusted cadres, and military commanders, the latter frequently holding the greatest power.
39Effects of the Cultural Revolution Many Chinese lost their jobs as a result of the Great Cultural RevolutionEducation came to a halt across the country.Many talents were suppressed as they were exiled to manual labour in the fields.Many other skilled professionals were either persecuted or executed, leaving behind vast numbers of poorly educated people ill equipped for the 20th century.Foreign embassies were attacked by the Red Guards. The British Embassy was even burned down completely!
40Effects of Cultural Revolution The radical tide receded somewhat beginning in late 1967It was not until after mid-1968 that Mao came to realize the uselessness of further revolutionary violence.Liu Shaoqi, Deng Xiaoping, and their fellow "revisionists" and "capitalist roaders" had been purged from public life by early 1967.The Maoist group had since been in full command of the political scene.
41Effects of Cultural Revolution The need for domestic calm and stability was occasioned perhaps even more by pressures emanating from outside China.The Chinese were alarmed in by steady Soviet military buildups along their common border.The Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968 heightened Chinese apprehensions.In March 1969 Chinese and Soviet troops clashed on Zhenbao Island (known to the Soviets as Damanskiy Island) in the disputed Wusuli Jiang (Ussuri River) border area.The tension on the border had a sobering effect on the Chinese political scene and provided the regime with a new and unifying rallying call.
42Effects on Japan and Media Outside of China, the cultural revolution left the greatest impact on Japan.China had great control over the media at the time, therefore the cause and effects of the Cultural Revolution were forbidden to be published, and anyone who wrote about it were to be exiled.Chinese Government kept a tight seal over what went on in China.People could only read about what happened through false and misleading facts approved by the communist regime.Only supporters of the Cultural Revolution could enter China.Even Chinese students and citizens had a hard time understanding what was going on due to the control of the media.Resulted in much confusion in Japan. Despite that, Japan formed groups that reacted against the Chinese government.Since China and Japan were not able to communicate during the Cultural Revolution, groups of sympathy for the Chinese government soon ended.
43Effects on Economy and Families The Cultural Revolution caused China’s economy to collapse.The amount of rice grains produced a year decreased greatly and cotton production also dropped dramatically.Due to the decreased production, the price for rice increased, and the price for cotton fabrics and clothes also increased.Transportation also became a problem for the people of China, as industrial production dropped during the ten harsh years.The Cultural Revolution led many citizens to lose their possessions. Politicians, landowners, and the high class society lost their jobs and properties. The lives of many Chinese were changed for the worse.More citizens became peasants and worked in the farms in order to afford foods and earn money for their families.Due to the abandonment of the birth control programs, many families increased and birth rates went up. That made living arrangements harder for most families, as the expenses of living were already difficult.
44Effects on Schools and Students Many Chinese students were not able to study during the Cultural Revolution.They were forced to farm and do manual labor.The government required that the values of the Cultural Revolution be taught in schools.During 1966 and 1967, all graduates and current students were required to completed a course covering the ideals of the Cultural Revolution before graduating.The process blocked many students from completing school, and many students dropped out.For those children who could not afford to go to school, they worked in factories and farms to earn petty amounts of money for their family.For those who stayed in school until graduation, they were sent to the countryside, because Mao thought it was necessary for graduates to be re-educated by famers and peasants.Four million high school and college graduates and sixteen million students were sent to the farmland where they ended up working the farms and performing manual labor.Problems arose for most of the young people due to the scarcity of food, housing, and money.Many talented students talents were wasted, because they were stuck working in the fields until the revolution ended.