Presentation on theme: "Plagiarism An Introduction to Academic Honesty Seminole State College Freshman Seminar."— Presentation transcript:
Plagiarism An Introduction to Academic Honesty Seminole State College Freshman Seminar
Plagiarism Definition: The intentional or accidental use of someone else’s words or ideas without proper or complete acknowledgment. Other terms related to plagiarism: Intellectual theft Copyright violation Cheating Academic misconduct
From Turnitin.com… Plagiarism is an act of fraud. It involves both stealing someone else’s work and lying about it afterward. All of the following are considered plagiarism: ◦ turning in someone else’s work as your own ◦ copying words or ideas from someone else without giving credit ◦ failing to put a quotation in quotation marks ◦ giving incorrect information about the source of a quotation ◦ changing words but copying the sentence structure of a source without giving credit ◦ copying so many words or ideas from a source that it makes up the majority of your work, whether you give credit or not (see our section on “fair use” rules)
Caution!! Changing the words of an original source is not sufficient to prevent plagiarism. If you have retained the essential idea of an original source, and have not cited it, then no matter how drastically you may have altered its context or presentation, you have still plagiarized. Most cases of plagiarism can be avoided, however, by citing sources. Simply acknowledging that certain material has been borrowed, and providing your audience with the information necessary to find that source, is usually enough to prevent plagiarism.
Academic Honesty From SSC’s Student Handbook (Summer 2010) Academic Misconduct: Students must exhibit honesty in carrying out academic assignments. Receipt or transmission of unauthorized aid on assignments or examinations, plagiarism, unauthorized use of examination materials, or other forms of dishonesty are examples of academic misconduct. The instructor shall notify his/her Division Chair as well as the Vice President for Academic Affairs of alleged breaches of conduct, for the consideration of additional penalties. Students charged with academic misconduct have the right to a hearing. Students requesting a formal hearing should notify the VPAA in writing. (27) 5
Academic Honesty From SSC’s Student Handbook (Summer 2010): Plagiarism: All academic work, written or otherwise, submitted by students to their instructors or other academic supervisors must be the result of their own thought, research, or self-expression. In cases where students are unsure about a question of plagiarism involving their work, they are obliged to consult their instructors on the matter before submission. Students may be guilty of plagiarism if they submit work purporting to be their own, but which borrows ideas, organization, or wording, from another source without appropriate acknowledgement. Plagiarism includes reproducing someone else’s work, whether it is a published article, material from an Internet site, a chapter of a book, a paper from a friend, or from other sources. Plagiarism also includes the practice of employing or allowing another person to alter or revise the work without acknowledgement which students submit as their own. Students may discuss assignments among themselves or with an instructor or tutor, but when the actual work is done, it must be done by them, unless otherwise authorized by the instructor. (28)
Citing (from Turnitin.com) What is Citation? A “citation” is the way you tell your readers that certain material in your work came from another source. It also gives your readers the information necessary to find that source again, including: information about the author the title of the work the name and location of the company that published your copy of the source the date your copy was published the page numbers of the material you are borrowing
Citing continued Why should I cite sources? Giving credit to the original author by citing sources is the only way to use other people’s work without plagiarizing. But there are a number of other reasons to cite sources: Citations are extremely helpful to anyone who wants to find out more about your ideas and where they came from. Not all sources are good or right – your own ideas may often be more accurate or interesting than those of your sources. Proper citation will keep you from taking the rap for someone else’s bad ideas. Citing sources shows the amount of research you’ve done. Citing sources strengthens your work by lending outside support to your ideas.
Citing continued Doesn’t citing sources make my work seem less original? Not at all. On the contrary, citing sources actually helps your reader distinguish your ideas from those of your sources. This will actually emphasize the originality of your own work. When do I need to cite? Whenever you borrow words or ideas, you need to acknowledge their source. The following situations almost always require citation: Whenever you use quotes Whenever you paraphrase Whenever you use an idea that someone else has already expressed Whenever you make specific reference to the work of another Whenever someone else’s work has been critical in developing your own ideas.
Citing continued How do I cite sources? This depends on what type of work you are writing, how you are using the borrowed material, and the expectations of your instructor…You should always consult your instructor to determine the form of citation appropriate for your paper. You can save a lot of time and energy simply by asking “How should I cite my sources,” or “What style of citation should I use?” before you begin writing. For more information on any of these topics, and to read the complete Turnitin.com packet, visit the site at: ◦ rces.doc.]
Exceptions – Common Knowledge “In Writing with Sources: A Guide for Harvard Students, Gordon Harvey defines common knowledge as: ◦ [Knowledge that is familiar or easily available in many different sources (including encyclopedias, dictionaries, basic textbooks) and isn’t arguable or based on a particular interpretation. The date of the Stock Market Crash, the distance to Saturn, the structure of the American Congress, the date of birth of the discoverer of DNA: this is commonly available knowledge…Obviously what counts as “common knowledge” varies from situation to situation; when in doubt, ask—or cite anyway, to be safe. Note that when you draw a great deal of information from a single source, you should cite that source even if the information is common knowledge, since the source (and its particular way of organizing the information) has made a significant contribution to your paper.” (qtd. in “ASJA Law and Policy Report” 3) Types of common knowledge: ◦ Facts available in a wide variety of sources ◦ Visuals you create yourself ◦ Your own findings from field research
Some Plagiarism Facts from Plagiarism.org A study by The Center for Academic Integrity found that almost 80% of college students admit to cheating at least once. According to a survey by the Psychological Record, 36% of undergraduates have admitted to plagiarizing written material. According to the Gallup Organization (October 6-9, 2000), the top two problems facing the country today are: 1) Education and 2) Decline in Ethics (both were ranked over crime, poverty, drugs, taxes, guns, environment, and racism, to name a few). “The State of Americans: This Generation and the Next” (Free Press, July 1996) states that 58.3% of high school students let someone else copy their work in 1969, and 97.5% did so in (“Statistics”)
Types of Plagiarism Those Involving Collaboration or Blatant Cheating: My Friend the English Major –writes or revises paper for you Overzealous Tutor – rewrites your paper, changing style and diction “My roommate won’t know” – stealing another student’s work “Share a Grade” Plan – more than one student submitting the same paper that they’ve created together File Sharing – stockpile of old papers for new students to use Self-plagiarizing – recycling a paper from another class Frankensteining – sewing together uncited original material from sources with your own words.
Types of Plagiarism Those Involving Integration or Organization Problems: Synonym swap and syntax dance – taking a quote and changing the odd word or phrase, but maintaining the original word order, tone, and phrasing. Quotation Dump – paper is cited correctly but is really just back to back quotations – no original work or very little original work present Where’s the Source? – cannot remember where information came from, so simply sticks it in without documentation Horseshoes and Hand Grenades – some part of documentation is missing (in text notation or works cited entry) Overgoogling: reading so much info that you forget where your ideas end and another’s begins and you end up incorporating cited material into a paper as your own
Motives for Plagiarising Students lack confidence in their ability to complete an assignment – they think they don’t know enough or anything about that topic Students only care about getting a certain grade at any cost Students see others doing it and either bow to peer pressure or think it is acceptable behavior Students put off starting the assignment until so late that they can’t get it all done by themselves Students have no sense of pride in doing their own work, often because a specific class holds no interest for them Students have a lack of intellectual curiosity to actually inform themselves and write about something Students lose track of where they got information and leave it in rather than find the source or change sources Students are confused about documentation rules such as: ◦ common knowledge ◦ how to cite both in the paper and on a reference/bibliography page, ◦ College standards and requirements for academic honesty Cultural differences – standards differ from country to country, but you must follow the system the college uses no matter what
Examples of Plagiarism from Real Students Basic Grammar Assignment: Write 10 sentences on the importance of freedom. The student submitted ten sentences copied from the UN’s “Universal Declaration of Human Rights.” ◦ All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. ◦ They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. ◦ Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person. ◦ No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms. ◦ Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.
Examples…Two Papers from the same Class Student A Smoking is very harmful to your health. In the CDC’s 2004 it stated that “In 2003, an estimated 171,900 new cases of lung cancer occurred and approximately 157,200 people died from lung cancer” and that “The risk for cancer generally increases with the number of cigarettes smoked and the number of years of smoking, and generally decreases after quitting completely.” Student B Smoking is deadly to your body. In the CDC’s 2004 it stated that “In 2003, an estimated 171,900 new cases of lung cancer occurred and approximately 157,200 people died from lung cancer” and that “The risk for cancer generally increases with the number of cigarettes smoked and the number of years of smoking, and generally decreases after quitting completely.”
Examples… Student’s Paper It is important in the fact that it will make you a better person, which is what everyone wants anyway. Upon inspection, I see that our lives is about our Awakening. We are constantly in communication with minds that are grasping in the dark for enlightenment, liberation, and self- realization. Original Material Upon inspection, I see that my life is about your Awakening. I am constantly in communication with minds that are grasping in the dark for enlightenment, liberation, self-realisation, “It” (Oshana).
Examples… Student’s Paper The debate over the legalization of Cannabis Sativa, also known as marijuana, is one of the most controversial issues to occur in the United States. It has been used for its medicinal value for centuries in countries worldwide and is documented as far back as 2700 BC in ancient Chinese writings. Original Material The debate over the legalization of Cannabis Sativa, more commonly known as marijuana, has been one of the most heated controversies ever to occur in the Inited States. Its use as a medicine has existed for thousands of years in many countries world wide and "can be documented as far back as 2700 BC in ancient Chinese writings." (from bis/cannabis_culture11.shtml)
My Teacher is SOOOOO Clueless… “Mr. Cox won’t notice that I’ve stolen Martin Luther King, Jr.’s words.” “Ms. McBride won’t notice that I’ve lifted my works cited page from the MLA examples in our textbook.” “Ms. McBride won’t notice that I’ve taken the example paper she wrote in class for us and turn it in as my own work.” “Ms. McBride won’t notice that all of the sudden my writing has gone from borderline D to A+ quality in a few weeks.”
What is Plagiarism – More Definition Document provided by Turnitin.com and Research Resources. Turnitin allows free distribution and non-profit use of this document in educational settings [Note: The following pages are culled from Turnitin’s resource packet. You may obtain the entire packet on line, free. See the works cited page for the Internet address.] Many people think of plagiarism as copying another’s work, or borrowing someone else’s original ideas. But terms like “copying” and “borrowing” can disguise the seriousness of the offense.
FAQ, continued Can facts be copyrighted? Yes, in some situations. Any “facts” that have been published as the result of individual research are considered the intellectual property of the author. Do I have to cite sources for every fact I use? No. You do not have to cite sources for facts that are not the result of unique individual research. Facts that are readily available from numerous sources and generally known to the public are considered “common knowledge,” and are not protected by copyright laws. You can use these facts liberally in your paper without citing authors. If you are unsure whether or not a fact is common knowledge, you should probably cite your source just to be safe. Does it matter how much was copied? Not in determining whether or not plagiarism is a crime. If even the smallest part of a work is found to have been plagiarized, it is still considered a copyright violation, and its producer can be brought to trial. However, the amount that was copied probably will have a bearing on the severity of the sentence. A work that is almost entirely plagiarized will almost certainly incur greater penalties than a work that only includes a small amount of plagiarized material.
FAQ, continued But can’t I use material if I cite the source? You are allowed to borrow ideas or phrases from other sources provided you cite them properly and your usage is consistent with the guidelines set by fair use laws. As a rule, however, you should be careful about borrowing too liberally – if the case can be made that your work consists predominantly of someone else’s words or ideas, you may still be susceptible to charges of plagiarism. What are the punishments for plagiarism? As with any wrongdoing, the degree of intent (see below) and the nature of the offense determine its status. When plagiarism takes place in an academic setting, it is most often handled by the individual instructors and the academic institution involved. If, however, the plagiarism involves money, prizes, or job placement, it constitutes a crime punishable in court. Academic Punishments: Most colleges and universities have zero tolerance for plagiarists. In fact, academic standards of intellectual honesty are often more demanding than governmental copyright laws. If you have plagiarized a paper whose copyright has run out, for example, you are less likely to be treated with any more leniency than if you had plagiarized copyrighted material. A plagiarized paper almost always results in failure for the assignment, frequently in failure for the course, and sometimes in expulsion.
FAQ, continued Does intention matter? Ignorance of the law is never an excuse. So even if you did not realize you were plagiarizing, you may still be found guilty. However, there are different punishments for willful infringement, or deliberate plagiarism, and innocent infringement, or accidental plagiarism. To distinguish between these, courts recognize what is called the good faith defense. If you can demonstrate, based on the amount you borrowed and the way you have incorporated it in your own work, that reasonably believed what you did was fair use, chances are that your sentence will be lessened substantially. What is “fair use,” anyway? The United States government has established rough guidelines for determining the nature and amount of work that may be “borrowed” without explicit written consent. These are called “fair use” laws, because they try to establish whether certain uses of original material are reasonable. The laws themselves are vague and complicated. Below we have condensed them into some rubrics you can apply to help determine the fairness of any given usage
FAQ, continued The nature of your use. If you have merely copied something, it is unlikely to be considered fair use. But if the material has been transformed in an original way through interpretation, analysis, etc., it is more likely to be considered “fair use.” The amount you’ve used. The more you’ve “borrowed,” the less likely it is to be considered fair use. What percentage of your work is “borrowed” material? What percentage of the original did you use? The lower the better. The effect of your use on the original. If you are creating a work that competes with the original in its own market, and may do the original author economic harm, any substantial borrowing is unlikely to be considered fair use. The more the content of your work or its target audience differs from that of the original, the better. We recommend the following sites for more information on “Fair Use” and Copyright laws. (UPDATED FROM PRINTED HANDOUT) ◦ Copyright Clearance Center’s “Copyright on Campus Video” Copyright Clearance Center’s “Copyright on Campus Video” ◦ OCCC’s Copyright Basics for Faculty, Staff and Students OCCC’s Copyright Basics for Faculty, Staff and Students
Preventing Plagiarism: Student Resources In a research paper, you have to come up with your own original ideas while at the same time making reference to work that’s already been done by others. But how can you tell where their ideas end and your own begin? What’s the proper way to integrate sources in your paper? If you change some of what an author said, do you still have to cite that person? Confusion about the answers to these questions often leads to plagiarism. If you have similar questions, or are concerned about preventing plagiarism, we recommend using the checklist below. Consult with your instructor: Have questions about plagiarism? If you can’t find the answers on our site, or are unsure about something, you should ask your instructor. He or she will most likely be very happy to answer your questions. You can also check out the guidelines for citing sources properly. If you follow them, and the rest of the advice on this page, you should have no problems with plagiarism. Plan your paper: Planning your paper well is the first and most important step you can take toward preventing plagiarism. If you know you are going to use other sources of information, you need to plan how you are going to include them in your paper. This means working out a balance between the ideas you have taken from other sources and your own, original ideas. Writing an outline, or coming up with a thesis statement in which you clearly formulate an argument about the information you find, will help establish the boundaries between your ideas and those of your sources.
Checklist continued Take Effective Notes: One of the best ways to prepare for a research paper is by taking thorough notes from all of your sources, so that you have much of the information organized before you begin writing. On the other hand, poor note- taking can lead to many problems – including improper citations and misquotations, both of which are forms of plagiarism! To avoid confusion about your sources, try using different colored fonts, pens, or pencils for each one, and make sure you clearly distinguish your own ideas from those you found elsewhere. Also, get in the habit of marking page numbers, and make sure that you record bibliographic information or web addresses for every source right away – finding them again later when you are trying to finish your paper can be a nightmare! When in doubt, cite sources: Of course you want to get credit for your own ideas. And you don’t want your instructor to think that you got all of your information from somewhere else. But if it is unclear whether an idea in your paper really came from you, or whether you got it from somewhere else and just changed it a little, you should always cite your source. Instead of weakening your paper and making it seem like you have fewer original ideas, this will actually strengthen your paper by: ◦ showing that you are not just copying other ideas but are processing and adding to them, ◦ lending outside support to the ideas that are completely yours, and ◦ highlighting the originality of your ideas by making clear distinctions between them and ideas you have gotten elsewhere.
Checklist continued Make it clear who said what: Even if you cite sources, ambiguity in your phrasing can often disguise the real source of any given idea, causing inadvertent plagiarism. Make sure when you mix your own ideas with those of your sources that you always clearly distinguish them. If you are discussing the ideas of more than one person, watch out for confusing pronouns. For example, imagine you are talking about Harold Bloom’s discussion of James Joyce’s opinion of Shakespeare, and you write: “He brilliantly portrayed the situation of a writer in society at that time.” Who is the “He” in this sentence? Bloom, Joyce, or Shakespeare? Who is the “writer”: Joyce, Shakespeare, or one of their characters? Always make sure to distinguish who said what, and give credit to the right person. Know how to Paraphrase: A paraphrase is a restatement in your own words of someone else’s ideas. Changing a few words of the original sentences does NOT make your writing a legitimate paraphrase. You must change both the words and the sentence structure of the original, without changing the content. Also, you should keep in mind that paraphrased passages still require citation because the ideas came from another source, even though you are putting them in your own words. The purpose of paraphrasing is not to make it seem like you are drawing less directly from other sources or to reduce the number of quotations in your paper. It is a common misconception among students that you need to hide the fact that you rely on other sources. Actually it is advantageous to highlight the fact that other sources support your own ideas. Using quality sources to support your ideas makes them seem stronger and more valid. Good paraphrasing makes the ideas of the original source fit smoothly into your paper, emphasizing the most relevant points and leaving out unrelated information.
Checklist continued Evaluate Your Sources: Not all sources on the web are worth citing – in fact, many of them are just plain wrong. So how do you tell the good ones apart? For starters, make sure you know the author(s) of the page, where they got their information, and when they wrote it (getting this information is also an important step in avoiding plagiarism!). Then you should determine how credible you feel the source is: how well they support their ideas, the quality of the writing, the accuracy of the information provided, etc. UPDATE FROM PRINT VERSION: The Portland Community College rubric is no longer available. Use this instead:
Works Cited Axelrod, Rise B., and Charles R. Cooper. The St. Martin’s Guide to Writing. 5th edition. NY: St. Martin’s, Print. “Complete Resources.” Turnitin 9 Mar Web. 12 Sept Oshana, Dave. “Teaching Enlightenment.” Enlightenment Now. 9 Mar Web. 12 Sept
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Bonus Materials Extra Info about MLA Documentation
Works Cited Page The WC page should always be the very last page in an essay and begin at the top of that page. To ensure it is always the very last page, writers can insert a PAGE BREAK at the end of the first page and then insert the WC page. The PAGE BREAK function means that no matter how much the user types before that break, the page immediately after it will always appear as a separate page. The graphic to the right shows where the page break option is in Word 2010.
Works Cited Page The WC page is double spaced, like ALL pages in an MLA style paper. No extra spacing appears between entries. All entries on the list should be alphabetized by the first piece of information in the entry (usually the author’s last name). Works Cited Aristotle. On Rhetoric: A Theory of Civic Discourse. Trans. George A. Kennedy. New York: Oxford UP, Print. Foley, Jennifer, and Megan Corse. “Being in the Noh: An Introduction to Japanese Noh Plays: Convention of Noh Plays.” Edsitement.neh.gov. Edsitement, n.d. Web. 12 Aug Gaskell, Anne. "Student Satisfaction and Retention: Are They Connected?" Open Learning 24.3 (2009):
Works Cited Page Each entry uses hanging indent, the opposite of paragraph indent. Hanging indent keeps the first line flush with the margin and indents every other line.5 inches until the writer hits the ENTER key. To apply this indenting, highlight all WC entries and then choose HANGING from the PARAGRAPH options menu in WORD (use the HELP function if you cannot find this menu).
In-Text Citations The second part of correctly documenting sources happens in the paper itself. How does the writer show the reader where he has used these sources and which works cited entry that information comes from? We do this using in-text citations. In-text citations can require multiple steps depending on how the writer integrates the material. For specific rules that govern the different ways and methods of formatting these citations, go to Chapter 56, pp , in the LB Brief. In this class, the terms “signal-in” and “signal-out” refer to the opening and closing methods of letting a reader know when a writer is citing from a source. The LB Brief uses the term “parenthetical notation” rather than “signal-out.” The book covers “signal-in” methods in Chapter 53 concerning how to integrate sources into a paper.
Signal-In The “signal-in” refers to how the writer leads in to a quotation, summary or paraphrase. The most common type uses the author’s name: ◦ According to Leslie Bishop, the city “refuses to fix the water main on Smith Street because it is a low priority” (3). ◦ Leslie Bishop reports that the city’s lack of response to the water main crisis on Smith Street is more about who needs it fixed rather than a lack of resources to fix it (3). Both the quote and paraphrase from Bishop use a signal-in to not only identify the source being used (there should be an entry on the WC page with Bishop’s name leading off), but also the signal-in provides a clear indication of when the writer is using someone else’s words/ideas and not his own. If the work has no author, or if the writer needs to use more than just the author’s name, the LB Brief provides guidelines.
Signal-Out The signal-out, or parenthetical notation, is how the writer lets the reader know not only important information about the cited material, but it also clearly indicates when the writer has finished citing from a source. Signal-Outs are placed inside parentheses: ( ) End punctuation varies depending on the way the writer has incorporated the source. The LB Brief provides punctuation rules on pp The information that goes inside the parentheses also changes depending on the signal-in used and the type of source. The LB Brief pp provides rules.
Signal-Out: Types The most common signal-out uses author’s last name and the page number(s) where the information cited is found: “The city refuses to fix the water main on Smith Street” (Bishop 3). If the writer uses the author’s name in a signal-in to the citation, then the signal-out only has to list the page number: Accord to Bishop, the city “refuses to fix the water main on Smith Street” (3).
Quoting Quoting incorporates outside information into your paper exactly as it appears in the original source. To indicate quotations, we put these words inside quotation marks. In MLA style, quotations over 4 typed lines long in prose and 3 typed lines in poetry must be set off from the rest of the text. Writers can manipulate the original material in some limited ways and still not violate the original intent of the work.
Long Quotations Quotes over 4 type lines in prose or 3 lines in poetry require special formatting from short quotes: Hit return before and after the long quote to separate it from the rest of your text. Use block indent to move the margin 1 inch from the left for the whole quote (the icon in word processing programs will move the margin in by.5 inches for each click). Block indenting replaces quotation marks in MLA style, so drop quotation marks when using block indent. Place end punctuation for quotation and THEN add your parenthetical citation for the quote (short quotation citations go after the end quotation mark but before end punctuation).
Long Quotation Example LONG QUOTATION: Princen, Maniates and Conca warn about the balance of power in determining eco-friendly policies: In global environmental policymaking arenas, it is becoming more and more difficult to ignore the fact that overdeveloped countries must restrain their consumption if they expect underdeveloped countries to embrace a more sustainable trajectory. (4) Countries in the G7 accord, therefore, must do more to avoid such an imbalance and still protect the environment. SHORT QUOTATION (less than 4 typed lines long): According to Princen, Maniates and Conca, “overdeveloped countries must restrain their consumption if they expect underdeveloped countries to embrace a more sustainable trajectory” (4).
Manipulating quotes A quotation does not have to include an entire sentence. A writer can use just what he needs from the original, as long as what he leaves out does not change the reader’s understanding of the original intent of the outside source.
Examples of Inaccurate Quoting By leaving out some information when I quote, I may change the original meaning. Original material from source: “Though only 5% of all users experience side-effects, the side-effects are so severe, often deadly, that the resulting harm is greater than similar drugs with larger percentages of patients experiencing side-effects. Therefore, the FDA should pull this medication from the shelves. Inaccurate and misleading quoting: “Only 5% of all users experience side-effects.” By leaving out the rest of the information that puts that statistic in context, I have mislead my reader about the medicine.
Allowable Manipulations Writers can change some things in a quote to better integrate it into their text. Page 420 of the LB Brief handbook lists the four specific ways writers can change original quotes using brackets [ ] to show the changes.
Changing Quotes Adding words: if the original quote does not provide information previous explained in the text and that missing info could cause your reader confusion, you can add, in brackets, the missing info. If the info is longer than a word or phrase, you should set up the quote with this information. Example: “The tabloids [of England] are a journalistic case study in bad reporting,” claims Lyman (52).
Changing Quotes Changing verb forms: If the quotation ends a sentence that you begin but the verb does not agree with your lead- in, you can change the verb form to match. Example: A bad reporter, Lyman implies, is one who “[fails] to separate opinions from facts” (52). The original quote used the form “fail.”
Changing Quotes Changing capitalization: If the start of your sentence is part of a quote that originally did not begin a sentence, and so is not capitalized, then you can capitalize that letter, putting it in brackets. Example: “[T]o separate opinions from facts” is the work of a good reporter (Lyman 52).
Changing Quotes Replacing pronoun with a noun: If the original quote uses a pronoun that refers to a noun in a previous sentence that you do not quote, then you can replace that pronoun with the correct noun, placing it in brackets. Example: The reliability of a news organization “depends on [reporters’] trustworthiness,” says Lyman (52). The original quote used “their” instead of “reporters’.”
When to use quotes Writers should use quotations ideally for specific reasons, not as a default way to incorporate outside sources. Those reasons are: The original language is unique or dynamic, creating an impact. Paraphrasing or summarizing could mislead the reader or original content is too short or too specific to reword. You are making a statement about what someone has said or how they have said it, so you need your reader to see the original words to understand the problem. The quotation reflects the “body of an opinion or the view of an important expert” (Aaron 417). You are quoting to emphasize and support your own previously expressed idea. The quote then becomes part of how you persuade your reader of the strength of your own ideas. You are incorporating a visual element, such as a chart.
Quotation Length When incorporating quotations, you should keep them as short as possible. You do not want an information dump – where you paste a large section of someone else’s text into your paper. Your quote should only include material relevant to your point. This can include examples that are unnecessary for your needs. You can use ellipses to omit irrelevant material (see pp in the LB Brief for the different places to use ellipses).
Summarizing The most useful method of integrating outside materials into our writing is usually summary. Summary allows us to take an original quote and rewrite it using our own voice and style, better matching the tone we are using in our paper. Summary reduces the original quotation to a few sentences and includes only the essential idea the author is expressing. Summary does not include examples, evidence, or background information. Summaries include the thesis and conclusion an author reaches in an entire piece. A summary can also cover just sections of a long work, such as a paragraph. Summaries require full documentation, just like quotations.
Summary Example Original: Such intuition is even making its way, albeit slowly, into scholarly circles, where recognition is mounting that ever-increasing pressures on ecosystems, life-supporting environmental services, and critical natural cycles are driven not only by the sheer number of resource users and the inefficiencies of their resource use, but also by the patterns of resource use themselves. In global environmental policymaking arenas, it is becoming more and more difficult to ignore the fact that overdeveloped countries must restrain their consumption if they expect underdeveloped countries to embrace a more sustainable trajectory. – Thomas Princen, Michael Maniates, and Ken Conca, Confronting Consumption, p. 4 Summary: Overconsumption may be a more significant cause of environmental problems than increasing population is (Princen, Maniates and Conca 4).
Paraphrasing Like summary, paraphrasing takes a quotation and rewrites it in our own voice, tone, and style. Unlike summary, paraphrasing includes specific details like examples and evidence. Paraphrases are usually close to the same length as the original. Paraphrases require full documentation, just as quotations and summaries do. Paraphrasing is useful when dealing with an original work that might be written at a more basic or advanced level than our reader can handle. We can rewrite the original in a way that best meets our reader’s needs.
Paraphrase Example: Donne’s “Meditation 17” Original: “Perchance he for whom this bell tolls may be so ill as that he knows not it tolls for him. And perchance I may think myself so much better than I am, as that they who are about me, and see my state, may have caused it to toll for me, and I know not that” (Donne 5). Paraphrase: The bell that is announcing someone’s approaching death might be for someone who is so sick that he does not realize the bell is for him. Maybe this bell I hear is for me, but I don’t know it because I think I am healthier than I really am. My friends, though, perhaps know the truth and have asked the bells ring for me (Donne 5).
Double Check Sources No matter how you incorporate outside materials, double check to make sure you have provided an accurate, fair, and honest quote, summary, or paraphrase. Make sure you have documented all uses of outside materials appropriately for the documentation style you are required to use in the class. LB Brief discusses most of pertinent issues regarding this on pp and in chapter 54 (avoiding plagiarism).
Plagiarism Plagiarism involves using someone else’s words or ideas without giving them credit. Without documentation, these words/ideas appear as your own. Plagiarism can be intentional or unintentional. Because the end result is the same, some professors respond to both types the same – failing the student for the assignment or even the course. Some information, deemed common knowledge, does not require documentation unless you quote from the source itself. LB Brief defines common knowledge as “the standard information on a subject as well as folk literature and commonsense observations” (Aaron 426). Plagiarism is considered academic dishonesty and a form of cheating. Your student handbook goes into more details about the consequences of academic dishonesty.
Common Knowledge: Types Standard Information: historical facts and statistics. This does not include “interpretations of facts” (426). Folk Literature: Stories with no known author, like Snow White. However, a particular author’s version of the story is not common knowledge. For example, I could write my own story, but I would have to cite references to versions such as Mirror, Mirror, or Snow White and the Huntsman – 2 recent retellings of the folk tale. Commonsense Observations: Ideas and beliefs commonly known by people. This does not include specific theories or interpretations by people of these common ideas.
Common Knowledge: Types Common knowledge is often a gray area, and teachers can interpret it differently. Always check with an instructor before determining something is common knowledge unless it is a very clear case (e.g. Washington lived at Mt. Vernon). If you turn to a source to fill out your knowledge on a subject, you may not know enough to determine if the info you want to use is common knowledge. If you do not have time to ask your instructor, play it safe and cite the information anyway. Common knowledge deals in the basic facts or info. It does not refer to how someone else has written them down. So Snow White may be common knowledge, but Grimm’s version of it is not. If I were to copy parts of Grimm’s story without giving him credit, I would still be plagiarizing his work. Though I may get facts from a dictionary, such as a common definition, if I copy and past Webster’s exact words in my paper, I am plagiarizing because someone else chose those specific words and arrangement of ideas. Therefore, the info itself might be common knowledge, but the style, diction, arrangement, and design are not.
Intentional Plagiarism: Types Inserting original material from another source without quotation marks or citations. This material can be as short as a phrase or as long as an entire paper. Using a paraphrase or summary of original material without citations and acknowledgment of the source. Buying, downloading, or retyping an entire paper from another source, such as the internet or a magazine, and submitting it as your assignment.
Unintentional Plagiarism: Types Unintentional plagiarism is often called “technical plagiarism” because the writer has usually misapplied, misunderstood or didn’t remember a documentation rule, or the writer simply made a mistake on some sources but bot all. The overall intent in the paper, though, is clearly NOT to cheat or steal work from someone else. Leaving off quotation marks around a quote but still including citations. Quoting but leaving out citations. Failing to use citations for some summaries or paraphrases in a paper. Incorrectly categorizing something as common knowledge that instead needs full documentation. After reading a lot of research, accidentally incorporating information as you write that should be documented.