Presentation on theme: "Is media censorship necessary? DONE BY: CHENG TONG WEN (4P203) ONG KIAN HAN (4P220) SIM ZHAO XIANG (4P226) ZAC LEE (4P231)"— Presentation transcript:
Is media censorship necessary? DONE BY: CHENG TONG WEN (4P203) ONG KIAN HAN (4P220) SIM ZHAO XIANG (4P226) ZAC LEE (4P231)
Coverage Key definitions Forms Reasons Who censors and what is censored? Limitations Importance Consequences Media censorship in Singapore against media censorship in America
Key Definitions: Media: means of communication ( such as radio, television newspaper, magazines) that reach or influence people widely Censorship: The practice of officially examining books, movies, etc., and suppressing unacceptable parts. Necessary: required to be done, achieved, or present; essential
Forms Political censorship State secrets and prevention of attention Educational sources
Political censorship Government attempts to conceal, fake, distort, or falsify information By suppressing or crowding out political news suppression of views contrary to those of the government in power. Done through power of the army and the secret police Through methods such as bribery, ruin of careers, imprisonment, and even assassination.
State secrets and prevention of attention Preventing the release of information that might be useful to an enemy Involves keeping times or locations secret, or delaying the release of information until it is of no possible use to enemy forces. Done to aid authorities or to protect an individual
Educational sources Due to inappropriate quality of such material for the young Textbooks are " whitewashing " the individuals Religion: block the teaching of evolution Or blocking information that contradicts their religious beliefs
Reasons Ensure that the interests of children and family are protected and religious beliefs are respected An example is pornography censorship Continuation of culture and customs Security of the nation and defence An example is military censorship historical events and considerations For example in Germany: No glorification of Nazis
Reasons Companies use it to control or restrict information pertaining to their business activities Practiced by companies which have problems in its business operations
Who censors and what is censored? Self-censorship Censorship by higher authority
Self censorship Act of censoring or classifying one’s own work out of fear or deference or sensibilities, without overt pressure from any specific parties or institution of authority Mainly done by: Film directors/producers (scenes) Publishers/journalists (stories, articles, parties involved) Musicians (words)
Censorship by higher authority Act of censoring that is forced by higher authority such as the government Example: 911 Government wanted to keep low-profiled To prevent panic and more chaos Censor news through publishers, radio, etc.
Limitations Political agendas Loss of freedom Resources needed Violation of human rights
Political agendas Political parties determine who can say what and when Places power and control to the high powers Limits the power of the press to communicate issues, problems and agendas of those holding political power
Loss of freedom Restrict other people Limits the room for creativity and passion (journalist, writers, movie directors) Huge disincentive
Resources needed Whether it’s small scale or large scale, censorship takes huge amounts of time and resources that can be devoted into other sectors Due to the following areas: System needs to be maintained, upgraded and repaired Labor pool needed Cost of equipment
Violation of human rights People are denied in doing what they want Article 19 of the UDHR: “Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression ; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers ”
Importance Prevents the minds of children from becoming corrupt (pornography) Prevention of religious conflict Preservation of national secrets Reduction of negative influences (scenes of alcohol and smoking) Prevent politically motivated propaganda Prevents public display of disrespect to certain people or groups of people (races)
Importance Prevents the spread of racism Children are prevented from learning things that could harm others and themselves. (violence and vulgarities) Control panic and rumors (911, India 2008) Main idea: Censorship is imposed to protect people, not to restrain the expression of them.
Consequences Difficult to educate children on sensitive topics (sex, STI, HIV, AIDS) Dictators use it to promote a flattering image of themselves and can remove information against them Encroaches upon the freedom of press Ignorance in society Incorrect perceived image Associated with dictatorship
Consequences Compromised entertainment value (books, plays, movies) Different standards of morals among different societies Block legitimate criticism (which could be beneficial) Political parties use it for their own benefit Stifles opposition Broadcasting a narrow point of view/only one particular point of view
Consequences Main idea: Censorship denies access to vital information, differing points of view and criticism that could be beneficial
Singapore versus America Local censorship: motion picture association of america vs media development authority
Singapore versus America Internet censorship: SingaporeAmerica Minimal internet filtering for online searches Still has strong filtering for any kind of pornography Not so strong filtering for pornography except for child pornography, which is disapproved of world- wide. Video game censorship: ADV( age advisory) M18 (mature 18) Not much restriction
Singapore versus America Local, television, press SingporeAmerica Still follow MDA’s guidelines Not much censorship Largely controlled by Singapore Press Holdings (SPH) Viewed as corporate censorship Speaker’s corner available as well. Free speech zones are available, areas set aside in public places for citizens of the United States engaged in political activism to exercise their right of free speech.