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Is media censorship necessary? DONE BY: CHENG TONG WEN (4P203) ONG KIAN HAN (4P220) SIM ZHAO XIANG (4P226) ZAC LEE (4P231)

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Presentation on theme: "Is media censorship necessary? DONE BY: CHENG TONG WEN (4P203) ONG KIAN HAN (4P220) SIM ZHAO XIANG (4P226) ZAC LEE (4P231)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Is media censorship necessary? DONE BY: CHENG TONG WEN (4P203) ONG KIAN HAN (4P220) SIM ZHAO XIANG (4P226) ZAC LEE (4P231)

2 Coverage  Key definitions  Forms  Reasons  Who censors and what is censored?  Limitations  Importance  Consequences  Media censorship in Singapore against media censorship in America

3 Key Definitions:  Media: means of communication ( such as radio, television newspaper, magazines) that reach or influence people widely  Censorship: The practice of officially examining books, movies, etc., and suppressing unacceptable parts.  Necessary: required to be done, achieved, or present; essential

4 Forms  Political censorship  State secrets and prevention of attention  Educational sources

5 Political censorship  Government attempts to conceal, fake, distort, or falsify information  By suppressing or crowding out political news  suppression of views contrary to those of the government in power.  Done through power of the army and the secret police  Through methods such as bribery, ruin of careers, imprisonment, and even assassination.

6 State secrets and prevention of attention  Preventing the release of information that might be useful to an enemy  Involves keeping times or locations secret, or delaying the release of information until it is of no possible use to enemy forces.  Done to aid authorities or to protect an individual

7 Educational sources  Due to inappropriate quality of such material for the young  Textbooks are " whitewashing " the individuals  Religion: block the teaching of evolution  Or blocking information that contradicts their religious beliefs

8 Reasons  Ensure that the interests of children and family are protected and religious beliefs are respected  An example is pornography censorship  Continuation of culture and customs  Security of the nation and defence  An example is military censorship  historical events and considerations  For example in Germany: No glorification of Nazis

9 Reasons  Companies use it to control or restrict information pertaining to their business activities  Practiced by companies which have problems in its business operations

10 Who censors and what is censored?  Self-censorship  Censorship by higher authority

11 Self censorship  Act of censoring or classifying one’s own work out of fear or deference or sensibilities, without overt pressure from any specific parties or institution of authority  Mainly done by:  Film directors/producers (scenes)  Publishers/journalists (stories, articles, parties involved)  Musicians (words)

12 Censorship by higher authority  Act of censoring that is forced by higher authority such as the government  Example: 911  Government wanted to keep low-profiled  To prevent panic and more chaos  Censor news through publishers, radio, etc.

13 Limitations  Political agendas  Loss of freedom  Resources needed  Violation of human rights

14 Political agendas  Political parties determine who can say what and when  Places power and control to the high powers  Limits the power of the press to communicate issues, problems and agendas of those holding political power

15 Loss of freedom  Restrict other people  Limits the room for creativity and passion (journalist, writers, movie directors)  Huge disincentive

16 Resources needed  Whether it’s small scale or large scale, censorship takes huge amounts of time and resources that can be devoted into other sectors  Due to the following areas:  System needs to be maintained, upgraded and repaired  Labor pool needed  Cost of equipment

17 Violation of human rights  People are denied in doing what they want  Article 19 of the UDHR: “Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression ; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers ”

18 Importance  Prevents the minds of children from becoming corrupt (pornography)  Prevention of religious conflict  Preservation of national secrets  Reduction of negative influences (scenes of alcohol and smoking)  Prevent politically motivated propaganda  Prevents public display of disrespect to certain people or groups of people (races)

19 Importance  Prevents the spread of racism  Children are prevented from learning things that could harm others and themselves. (violence and vulgarities)  Control panic and rumors (911, India 2008)  Main idea: Censorship is imposed to protect people, not to restrain the expression of them.

20 Consequences  Difficult to educate children on sensitive topics (sex, STI, HIV, AIDS)  Dictators use it to promote a flattering image of themselves and can remove information against them  Encroaches upon the freedom of press  Ignorance in society  Incorrect perceived image  Associated with dictatorship

21 Consequences  Compromised entertainment value (books, plays, movies)  Different standards of morals among different societies  Block legitimate criticism (which could be beneficial)  Political parties use it for their own benefit  Stifles opposition  Broadcasting a narrow point of view/only one particular point of view

22 Consequences  Main idea: Censorship denies access to vital information, differing points of view and criticism that could be beneficial

23 Singapore versus America  Local censorship: motion picture association of america vs media development authority

24 Singapore versus America  Internet censorship: SingaporeAmerica Minimal internet filtering for online searches Still has strong filtering for any kind of pornography Not so strong filtering for pornography except for child pornography, which is disapproved of world- wide. Video game censorship: ADV( age advisory) M18 (mature 18) Not much restriction

25 Singapore versus America  Local, television, press SingporeAmerica Still follow MDA’s guidelines Not much censorship Largely controlled by Singapore Press Holdings (SPH) Viewed as corporate censorship Speaker’s corner available as well. Free speech zones are available, areas set aside in public places for citizens of the United States engaged in political activism to exercise their right of free speech.

26  Are there any questions?

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