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Map Composition OR Making a Cool map. esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 2 Steps to Creating a Map 1Define the Purpose of the map a.Audience? Professionals?

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Presentation on theme: "Map Composition OR Making a Cool map. esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 2 Steps to Creating a Map 1Define the Purpose of the map a.Audience? Professionals?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Map Composition OR Making a Cool map

2 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 2 Steps to Creating a Map 1Define the Purpose of the map a.Audience? Professionals? Lay public? b.How will map be used? 2Restate into a design problem 3Visualize the map 4Design solution - arrangement of map’s image elements to facilitate communication a.Sort of an outline 5Graphic design

3 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 3 Map Elements used in design Main map Smaller scale inset maps showing location Larger scale inset maps showing detail Title of the map (usually prominent) Subtitles Legend (Only what is in the map!) Scale (Only the Graphic scale. Xerox) North Arrow (if not there up is assumed N)

4 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 4 Map Elements used in design Graticule – a grid Various text (notes, metadata, etc.) Borders and neatlines Symbols Place names and labels Photographs, Graphics Mapped and unmapped areas (white space)

5 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 5 The elements one-by-one Title –Draws attention by virtue of its size (big!) –Focuses attention on primary purpose of content of map –Not always needed Legend –Principle reference to symbology –Almost always there!

6 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 6 The elements one-by-one Scale –A MUST! –Types graphic -- the scalebar verbal -- 1” = 1 mile (watch this one) a ratio 1/24,000 (this one too) –Because of ubiquitous nature of Xerox machines the graphic scale is a must, the others are optional

7 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 7 Important Scale note Scale –A MUST! –Types graphic -- the scalebar verbal -- 1” = 1 mile (watch this one) a ratio 1/24,000 (this one too) –Because of ubiquitous nature of Xerox machines the graphic scale is a must, the others are optional If nothing else these indicate … Accuracy!

8 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 8 The elements one-by-one Credits –another, older, term for metadata –Some metadata can be placed on map Data source Statement of accuracy, both spatial and attribute Date data collected, date map made Your name, assignment # etc… Projection or coordinate system

9 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 9 The elements one-by-one Credits –another, older, term for metadata –Some metadata can be placed on map Data source Statement of accuracy, both spatial and attribute Date data collected, date map made Your name, assignment # etc…

10 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 10 The elements one-by-one Mapped and unmapped areas –Objects, land, water, and other geographical features important to the purpose of the map –makes the composition a map rather than a diagram –The most prominent map element Graticule & Grids –Graticule – geographic coordinates

11 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 11 The elements one-by-one Borders and neatlines –Borders serve to restrain eye movement and focus attention on the map. A Border surrounds all the elements of a map. Holds the whole thing together! –A fill color can substitute for a border –Neatlines are: finer than borders drawn inside borders mainly decoration Used to highlight objects (like legends) and to help balance a map

12 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 12 Composition You have all the data You have the symbolization plan Now you have to visualize the map –A creative process –Trial and error process Where to put borders, neatlines What style of borders, neatlines Where does the legend go? The title And so on

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14 Composition How does the eye traverse the map Balance of map – will it fall over? Organization of map elements Where is important stuff? Division of space for interest White space Borders & neatlines Text Color esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 14

15 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 15 Focus Field Movement of reader’s eye - upper left to lower right

16 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 16 Composition: Planar Organization Balance –visual impact of arrangement is the map “heavy” at top, bottom, sides??? Geometric center Visual center: 5% of total height above Geometric center -- Arrange content around this point

17 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 17 Balance: Visual weight Depends on location –obj weight increases with distance from center –obj at top are heavier than those at bottom –obj on right are heavier than those on left Depends on size (Duh!) Depends on color, interest, and isolation –Red>Blue, Bright>dark –complex > simple –isolated > groups For Example …

18 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 18 A B C DEF

19 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 19 Which is better balanced? ABC DEF

20 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 20 Using Eye Movement Eye goes left to right Generally you want the reader to see the map BEFORE seeing the legend – can’t always do it

21 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 21 Unequal divisions of space more interesting than equal divisions

22 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 22 St. Louis too far from visual center, balance not bad, however Hard to read name Better, but a heavy on right Balance with legend etc.

23 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 23 Location of St, Louis Legend -adf asdf adfafffdsf

24 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 24 Location of St, Louis Don’t really need since countries are labeled

25 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 25 Size / white space problems Is this a better balanced map?

26 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 26 Borders or Not A dark fill works better than a light fill in establishing a border Location of St, Louis Legend -adf asdf adfafffdsf Location of St, Louis Legend -adf asdf adfafffdsf

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28 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 28 Text No more than two fonts –Serif text, Sans Serif text In each use the following to define hierarchy –Normal. italic, bold, spacing, color –UPPER and lower case ALL UPPER CASE IS HARD TO READ No fancy fonts Big print for important stuff Little print for not so important stuff

29 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 29 Using Color Color is complex and tricky There are definite color preferences There are definite color combination preferences There are standard color codes (like for planning) The map should NOT be garish!

30 Color-Price Earth tones (Brown, green, blue) Better than strident colors (red, hot pink, purple) used only for small areas and for contrast or emphasis Pastels for larger areas, dark for highlights (focus attention) esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 30

31 More Color Blues and greens calming –Natural uses for water and vegetation Reds and Oranges indicate danger Avoid crosshatch fills – tiring See pages for more info esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 31

32 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 32 So Creating maps is a creating a document for a specific purpose -- to communicate something to the reader It is an iterative process There are some basic rules or guides that can be used – described above an in the on-line course module.

33 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 33 Summary of Guidelines 1)Map layout – where are the pieces going to go – major pieces – visual center – eye path – uneven juxtaposition of parts a)The map area and what’s in it b)Legend placement (usually to right of map) c)Scale bar, North Arrow d)Balance e)White space 2)Map Title – Large – may not be needed

34 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 34 Summary of Guidelines 3)Credits (Metadata) usually present 4)Borders and neatlines. a)Border around ALL map pieces or solid fill b)Neatlines (or fill) around (in) various pieces 5) Color – tricky – but not garish!

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37 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 37 By Eustis B. Nifkin, Inc. Syracuse NY 10/10/05 Hydrology Lewis County Hydrology State & Cnty Highways

38 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 38 By Eustis B. Nifkin, Inc. Syracuse NY 10/10/05 Hydrology Lewis County Hydrology State & Cnty Highways This map illustrates the a;dj;fa a;dljf a;dlfj aljdf a;sdf asdjf a;sdufdafdsf paseuef a;df;a ap[ef a;sduf asdfo aosdf [asdfi asdoif a[dsf [asdifdfi asdifd asdf

39 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 39 Things I discovered The next maps you see took several hours for the basic map A really good map takes time Turning on labels is ok but you have no control (or limited control) Convert to annotation allows individual manipulation of the labels

40 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 40 The basic map as it appears in map view Questions –Legend –Title –N arrow –Scale bar –Metadata –Neatlines Lewis is a bad shape because of upper left

41 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 41 Making a map The basic map w/ title and N arrow Where’s the edge? It was saved with a Transparent fill. No border to hold the composition together!

42 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 42 Making a map The basic map w/ title and N arrow Where’s the edge? It was saved as Transparent But the faint border keeps it all together. Where did that come from? Text and scale always stuck in middle of map

43 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 43 Making a map Added more stuff but background is still transparent Balance does not look too bad

44 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 44 Making a map Oops! Put in a border around map It came up with a fill color of yellow Click on it and select properties to fix And where did the second scale come from?

45 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 45 Making a map Ah! Better But kind of garish But –Balance good –White space OK –Legend?

46 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 46 Making a map Aaah Better Still don’t like the hole where the N arrow is Could put a legend there but this map does not need a legend

47 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 47 Making a map Here is another approach Landscape Harder to do because map has to be smaller So –Added more text –Added a highway legend after classifying the highways Ech

48 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 48 Hummmm

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50 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 50 But maybe this, a simple white or no fill is better after all

51 esf Laboratory for Applied GIS 51 Booby Trap When you make scale bar it is grayed out? Why? –You didn’t set map and distance units If there are no map units then ArcGIS has no idea what they are ---probably no metadata If map units are m and you don’t want scale bar in meters then you have to set the distance units Where?


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