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The Three Branches.

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Presentation on theme: "The Three Branches."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Three Branches

2 The Legislative Branch
The Senate The House of Representatives Congress Powers found in Article I of The Constitution Makes the laws

3 Powers found in Article II
The Executive Branch Carries out the laws Powers found in Article II of The Constitution President Vice President The Cabinet The Bureaucracy

4 Powers found in Article III
The Judicial Branch Interprets the laws Powers found in Article III of The Constitution

5 The Constitution is the highest law of the land
Our country is based on concept of rule of law. No one is above the law There are two ways judges and others view the Constitution: Strictly or loosely The 1st Amendment states: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances. Abridging means to shorten without losing the sense or curtail.   Are you a strict constructionist or a loose constructionist? Decide by answering the following question. What does freedom of speech mean to you?

6 What would these guys say today?
Does the 1st Amendment clause of “freedom of speech” include The Internet? Twitter? Texting? s? These things didn’t exist during the time of the Framers. What would these guys say today?

7 Alexander Hamilton believed in a loose construction of the
Thomas Jefferson believed in a strict construction of the Constitution; that means, he believed people should follow exactly what was stated and allowed in the document. Anything not given to the federal government in the Constitution would be given to the states and the people. Alexander Hamilton believed in a loose construction of the Constitution; he thought you could take whatever action you wanted, as long as the document did not specifically say you couldn't do it. In other words a strict constructionist would feel the need to follow the specific instructions and rules of something, while a loose constructionist would feel it was acceptable to find a loophole, or do something not directly forbidden

8 Strict or Loose Constructionist
Roe v. Wade is the historic Supreme Court decision overturning a Texas interpretation of abortion law and making abortion legal in the United States. The Roe v. Wade decision held that a woman, with her doctor, could choose abortion in earlier months of pregnancy without restriction, and with restrictions in later months, based on the right to privacy. The case decision was based on the 9th Amendment. The Court said the 9th Amendment protected a person’s right to privacy. Read the 9th Amendment and see what you think. All state laws limiting women's access to abortions during the first trimester of pregnancy were invalidated by Roe v. Wade. State laws limiting such access during the second trimester were upheld only when the restrictions were for the purpose of protecting the health of the pregnant woman. Roe v. Wade legalized abortion in the United States, which was not legal at all in many states and was limited by law in others.

9 Strict or Loose Constructionist
Time Magazine article from June 2008 The U.S. Supreme Court's 5-4 decision overturning Washington, D.C.'s handgun ban is the biggest gun rights ruling since the Second Amendment was ratified in The Court had not waded into this divisive issue since 1939, when it declared, "We cannot say that the Second Amendment guarantees the right to keep and bear" arms. But on Thursday the Court broke its silence to do just that, ruling for the first time that the Constitution confers an individual right to gun ownership beyond providing for "a well regulated Militia," as the amendment states. The Constitution does not permit "the absolute prohibition of handguns held and used for self-defense in the home," Justice Antonin Scalia, the court's arch-conservative, wrote in the majority opinion. You decide!

10 Strict or Loose Constructionist
In 1808, the government of New York granted a steamboat company a monopoly to operate its boats on the state's waters, which included bodies of water that stretched between states. Aaron Ogden held a license under this monopoly to operate steamboats between New Jersey and New York. Thomas Gibbons, another steamboat operator, competed with Aaron Ogden on this same route but held a federal coasting license issued by an act of Congress. Ogden filed a complaint in New York court to stop Gibbons from operating his boats, claiming that the monopoly granted by New York was legal even though he operated on shared, interstate waters. Gibbons disagreed arguing that the U.S. Constitution gave Congress the sole power over interstate commerce. After losing twice in New York courts, Gibbons appealed the case to the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court determined that the commerce clause of the Constitution grants the federal government the power to determine how interstate commerce is conducted. Huh???

11 Which branch of government is mainly responsible for
passing laws, approving budgets, and approving appointments of officials? Which branch of the national government is the U.S. Congress in? The Supreme Court hears important legal cases, and has the power of "judicial review."  That means the Supreme Court has the power to declare a law ____________.  Which branch of government is mainly responsible executing the laws, preparing budgets, administering government agencies, and appointing officials?

12 Which branch of the national government is the president
the head of? Which Supreme Court case declared abortion is illegal? Someone who follows the Constitution word for word and does not interpret what it is meant say is known as a _______________________________ What does “rule of law” mean? What is meant by domestic tranquility? The Preamble includes the phrases “establish justice” and “secure the blessings of liberty. ” The Pledge of Allegiance contains the words, “with liberty and justice for all.” What do the terms liberty and justice mean to you?

13 Powers of Government Federal Powers State Powers
delegated – These powers are also called expressed or enumerated powers. They are directly granted to the federal government by the Constitution in Article I, Section 8. reserved – powers that are neither granted to the federal government nor expressly forbidden to the states and are therefore retained by the states or by the people. 10th Amendment. concurrent – powers held by both the federal and state governments.

14 Implied Powers implied (necessary and proper clause, elastic clause) –
the powers granted to the federal government in Article I, Section 8, Clause 18, of the Constitution. Congress is given the power to make all laws “necessary and proper” to carry out its responsibilities. Aka the elastic clause because it gives Congress powers that can be reasonably inferred from the brief wording of its expressed powers. What is an example of an necessary and proper law?

15 Denied Powers These are the powers expressly denied to the federal
government in Article I, Section 9 and in the First through Eighth Amendments; for example, the federal government can not tax goods sold to other countries, nor can it pass laws that significantly restrain our constitutional rights and liberties.

16 Denied Powers Suspension of habeas corpus Bills of Attainder
Ex post facto laws

17 prisoner before the court.
Habeas Corpus Bills of Attainder Ex post facto laws A court order commanding an officer holding a prisoner bring the prisoner before the court. The officer must show good cause in order to hold the prisoner longer. Inflicting punishment without a court trial. Remember a person is due a speedy and public trial. Punishing someone for an act before the act was ruled a crime Which of the Bill of Rights reflect these denied powers of government?

18 Reserved Powers Powers given to the states, among these are: Licensing
Marriage and divorce laws Drinking age Set up public school systems What are some other powers states have that the Federal government does not?

19 Supremacy Clause Supremacy Clause- Article VI, Section 2 of the Constitution, establishes two principles. The federal government is superior over all state and local governments. It also establishes the Constitution as the “supreme law of the land,” making it superior over all levels of government in the United States.

20 Some terms to know and apply
Preamble to the Constitution purposes of government domestic tranquility common defense general welfare justice liberty Governmental powers: delegated concurrent reserved implied (necessary and proper clause, elastic clause) denied

21 Some terms to know and apply
Limits on government: checks and balances separation of powers federalism judicial review consent of the governed popular sovereignty states’ rights due process

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