Presentation on theme: "What is the role of the Prime Minister?"— Presentation transcript:
1What is the role of the Prime Minister? DO NOW Read through the editorial from this Sunday’s Observer newspaper on the near-term consequences of the Scottish Referendum. Try to identify:any issues relating to democratic accountability;any issues relating to the powers of Parliament or the Prime Minister.Highlight or write down any terms you don’t recognise and/or understand.
2Written tasks to-date‘The parliamentary system in the UK is significantly undemocratic.’ Discuss. (25)Using your own knowledge as well as the extract, identify and explain two ways in which MPs in Parliament ‘articulate the interests of different groups in society to government’. (10)
3Feedback on your first essay Read the question – ‘Discuss’ implies engagement with both sides of a debateKey terms should be defined in a way that is not simply descriptivePoints should be rather more specific than they are general and more developed than superficialUse evidence rather than speculation to support your key points
4Feedback on your first essay Read the question – ‘Discuss’ implies engagement with both sides of a debateKey terms should be defined in a way that is not simply descriptivePoints should be rather more specific than they are general and more developed than superficialUse evidence rather than speculation to support your key points
5Where we (mostly) are . . .One thing that makes the UK undemocratic is declining political participation. The general public has declined its involvement in politics through elections, etc. Perhaps this is because the public only gets to vote every four or five years in the UK while in other countries the public’s opinion is expressed more often through referendums. Between 1956 and 2010 voting turnout fell by around 20% from around 85% to around 65%. This could be due to a number of reasons, but the common reason seems to be that people don’t feel that their votes or opinions count. Some people believe it is because politicians have a ‘lack of vision’ and don’t take their jobs seriously. The media is also to blame for telling the public that politics is all about ‘hype’.
6Where we want to be . . .Declining political participation is often seen as a evidence of the UK’s flawed democracy. Voter turnout in general elections has been in decline since the 1950s. And membership of political parties has reached a historic low: less than one percent of the population now belongs to one of the three main national political parties. On both measures, engagement with politics is closely related to social and economic status and to age. Wealthier voters, ‘A’ and ‘B’ type voters, are significantly more likely to vote and—outside of the Labour Party’s link with the unions—to join a political party. The same is true of older voters, people over the age of 35. This suggests that political engagement is a function of people’s level of investment in society—those that have more of a stake in the social order, such as middle-aged, middle-class voters, take a more active role in politics. By contrast, the less well off and the young appear to see mainstream politics as less relevant to their wellbeing.
7Feedback on your first essay Read the question – ‘Discuss’ implies engagement with both sides of a debateKey terms should be defined in a way that is not simply descriptivePoints should be rather more specific than they are general and more developed than superficialUse evidence rather than speculation to support your key points
8Learning objectivesTo describe the multiple roles of the British Prime MinisterTo explain the sources of and limits to the Prime Minister’s powersTo evaluate when and why Prime Ministers have struggled to implement their policies
9The UK model of parliamentary government AccountabilityExecutive(Prime minister & Cabinet)PersonnelAccountabilityHouse of CommonsHouse of LordsSupreme CourtElectorateLegitimacy & Accountability
10The UK model of parliamentary government AccountabilityExecutive(Prime minister & Cabinet)PersonnelAccountabilityHouse of CommonsHouse of LordsSupreme CourtElectorateLegitimacy & Accountability
11The core executive“The term ‘core executive’ refers to all those organizations and procedures which coordinate central government politics, and act as final arbiters of conflict between different parts of the government. In brief, the core executive is the heart of the machine, covering the complex web of institutions networks and practices surrounding the prime minister, cabinet, cabinet committees and their official counterparts, less formalised ministerial ‘clubs’ or meetings, bilateral negotiations and interdepartmental committees. It also includes coordinating departments, chiefly the Cabinet Office, the Treasury, the Foreign Office, the law officers and the security and intelligence services.” R.A.W. Rhodes (1995)
12By Friday, you must . . .Read the overview of how civil servants support government ministers (pp )Research the staffing and key functions of any one of the following units:The Prime Minister’s Private OfficeThe Cabinet OfficeThe Downing Street Policy UnitThe Treasury
13Examination questions, 2011-14 ‘In theory, but not in practice, the powers of modern prime ministers are unlimited.’ Discuss. (25)‘In modern times the prime minister, not the Cabinet, dominates the core executive.’ Discuss. (25)Evaluate the factors that can give the prime minister power over other cabinet members. (25)‘Ministers have considerable power and opportunity to restrain a prime minister.’ Discuss. (25)
14Spot the difference Prime ministers are . . . Presidents are . . . Heads of governmentPrimus inter pares in CabinetElected members of ParliamentLeaders of the legislatureNot heads of departmentPresidents are . . .Heads of government and heads of stateRun the CabinetDirectly electedOutside of the legislatureHave a personal department
15Has there always been a Prime Minster? Historians generally agree that the first politician who can be called a prime minister was Sir Robert Walpole (later the Earl of Oxford).Walpole held office from 1721 to 1742, under the Hanoverian kings George I and George II.Prior to Walpole’s appointment, monarchs had generally ruled directly, with a variety of ministers and other courtiers competing for their patronage.Robert Peel ( ) is regarded as the first politician to function as a modern prime minster.Benjamin Disraeli was the first politician to use the title Prime Minister (in 1878).
16The Prime Minister: roles, responsibilities and key powers DescriptionKey powersLimitationsChairpersonThe Prime Minister sets the agenda for the Cabinet and, by extension, for the wider government. (S)He dictates the order or policy meetings and decides what issues are discussed and when.Setting the policy agendaPartyPublic opinionChief executiveThe Prime Minister appoints ministers, including to Cabinet posts, and determines how government departments should be organised. They are also the head of the Civil Service, which implements Government policy.PatronageManaging the machinery & personnel of governmentCabinetChief communicatorThe Prime Minister is the face of the Government--particularly in times of crisis. On issues such as Terrorism or Disasters they are the lead communicator on behalf of the Government.Influencing the National moodChief legislatorThe Prime Minister is the official overall spokesperson for the Government in Parliament. They answer questions in Parliament and can be decisive in pushing through legislation.Setting the legislative agendaParliamentChief diplomatAs the head of the Government it is the Prime Minister that acts as the face of Britain Internationally, whether this is at the EU, NATO, UN or other organisations.Declare warSign treatiesBritain’s geopolitical and economic position
17What are the sources of Prime ministerial power? The PM’s power has evolved gradually as the result of the ASSIMILATION of the ROYAL PREROGATIVE POWERS. As the Monarch’s power declined, the role of prime minister developed to fill the vacuum.Powers exercised by the PM on behalf of the monarch, e.g. to declare war, make treaties, control the civil service, etc.Powers that have emerged through conventionPowers based upon the PM’s role as leader of the largest party in the HOC.
18Case studies in prime ministerial power . . . and its limits Margaret Thatcher’s attempt to introduce a Community Charge or ‘poll tax’ (1990)John Major’s forcing through of the Maastricht Treaty on European Union (1993)Tony Blair’s attempt to introduce university ‘top-up’ fees (2004)Gordon Brown’s attempt to impose discipline on his bank benchers in the run-up to the 2010 electionDavid Cameron’s attempt to build support for House of Lords’ reform (2012)
19Key questions What ‘role’ was the Prime Minister playing? What were the sources of power (s)he drew upon?What were the limitations on Prime Ministerial power?What was the outcome?What lesson can we learn from this case study?
21How can MPs articulate the interests Asking parliamentary questionsSpeaking in the legislative processServing on select committeesLobbying ministersBecoming recognised spokespeople for particular causes