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AP US History. The Protestant Reformation  In 1517, Martin Luther touched off a worldwide revolt against the Catholic Church  Several new denominations.

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Presentation on theme: "AP US History. The Protestant Reformation  In 1517, Martin Luther touched off a worldwide revolt against the Catholic Church  Several new denominations."— Presentation transcript:

1 AP US History

2 The Protestant Reformation  In 1517, Martin Luther touched off a worldwide revolt against the Catholic Church  Several new denominations of Christianity sprung up as a result Believed that salvation came from faith alone John Calvin, a French Protestant, inspired other churches as well ○ French Huguenot, Dutch Reformed Church, Church of Scotland, Anglican Church, and the Puritans  Calvinists believed in predestinations, belief that God chose who was saved or who was damned, regardless of the life you live  This religious upheaval gave European nations the desire to break from the influence of the Catholic Church and challenge Spain for worldwide dominance

3 Early French Exploration  Giovanni da Verrazano: Italian sailor hired by France in 1524 Searched for the Northwest Passage Explored coast from Nova Scotia to the Carolinas  Jacques Cartier: three voyages from 1534-1543 Explored St. Lawrence River Valley of Canada before harsh winters forced him to give up  Samuel de Champlain: made 11 voyages to Canada by 1645 Established the colony of Acadia (Nova Scotia) and Quebec, eventually known as New France Hoped to unite Catholics and Huguenots (French Calvinist Protestants) Sought friendly relations with Native Americans Failed in religious tolerance, as New France became a Catholic only colony in1625 Did open the fur trade and the coureurs de bois (roamers of the woods), much to the struggle of the missionaries

4 French Jesuits  The Society of Jesus, or Jesuits had great success in establishing missions in New France  Highly respected amongst Natives Learned Native languages and lived amongst the tribes Believed conversion could occur while keeping traditional culture  Eventually, lost influences as the fur trade gained steam and the French Crown assumed control of New France in 1663

5 New France After 1663  Louis tried to transform colony into model absolutist society Governor general: responsible for military and diplomatic affairs Professional soldiers were sent to Canada to provide defense Seigneurs: gentry that controlled land in New France, but were not as powerful as aristocrats in France  Efforts were made to restrain fur trade and the colony’s population Population 3,000 by 1750  Frenchmen also settled in the Caribbean Founded sugar colonies on Saint-Domingue (Haiti), Guadeloupe, and Martinique

6 Dutch & Swedish Settlement  The Dutch differed vastly from other European monarchies Valued personal liberties, prosperity and religious toleration  Established the Dutch East India Company in 1602 Drove the Portuguese out of the Spice Islands Sent Henry Hudson to North America, where he sailed up the Hudson River and claimed the river valley and the surrounding area for the Dutch  Dutch West India Company formed in 1621 Controlled slave trade and American trade  Established New Amsterdam (modern day NYC) in 1624 Traded heavily with Natives, did not venture far inland First experiment in religious toleration

7 Swedish Settlement  First settled in 1638 near present day Wilmington, DE Settled on land already claimed by the Dutch Mostly Lutheran, but tolerant of all religions  English expansion from the North (New England) and South (Virginia) threatened the success of the colony  Eventually, “Yankees” (land pirates) attacked the colony in 1664

8 English Exploration  Religion played a great role in English expansion and influence in the Americas  The various monarchs throughout the 1500s had differing views on religion  By the end of the 1500s, the Church of England emerged as the official religion Calvinist in belief, Catholic in practice and structure Puritans arose, rejecting the Catholic influence ○ Non-Separatists: loyal to the Church of England, but resisted Catholic influence ○ Separatists: formed their own congregations, hoping to break away from the Church of England Some left for other areas of Europe Eventually, the Pilgrims settled at Plymouth, MA, in 1620  Explorers like Sir Francis Drake pillaged Spanish settlements, much to the approval of the English Crown

9 English Exploration  Wars with Ireland were also influential in English settlement English tried to force customs and religion on the Irish, making them ever more Catholic Even today, a tense rivalry exists between the English and Irish Used as a model against Native Americans upon arrival to the Americas  Roanoke Island was the first attempt at colonization in 1585, off coast of present day North Carolina Founded by Sir Walter Raleigh Struggled for a few years before Raleigh returned to England for supplies Upon his return in 1590, the colony was abandoned, with a strange message – CROATOAN – carved into a tree Unknown to this day what happened to the settlers of the colony

10 Jamestown  In 1607, the London Company launched an expedition to colonize present day Virginia  Colony nearly failed from the start Colonists focused on finding gold, not building shelter, growing food, etc. Survived because of the leadership of John Smith and Pocahontas ○ Daughter of local tribal chief Powhatan ○ Soothed relations between the tribe and colonists  Cultivated tobacco, ensuring the survival of the colony  Formed the House of Burgesses, a representative government  Nearly destroyed in wars with Natives in 1622  English Crown took over control in 1624, making it a royal colony, with the governor and council appointed by the Crown  Attracted indentured servants to grow tobacco

11 Maryland  Formed on the basis of a haven for Catholics in 1632  Led by Lord Baltimore as a proprietary colony, one in which a proprietor controls the colony  However, most settlers ended up being Protestant Toleration Act of 1649 granted freedom to all Christians No established church like Viriginia, colonists worshiped without ministers until 1690  Established a bicameral legislature  Relied on tobacco, corn and livestock

12 New England  In 1620, Puritan Separatists sailed aboard the Mayflower, settling the colony of Plymouth  The passengers agreed to the Mayflower Compact before going ashore First Constitution in America Majority rule and consent of the governed  Suffered during the first winter, helped greatly by the local Native tribes Squanto, a Patuxet Indian, was especially influential Showed the colonists how to grow corn and fish Celebrated in the fall of 1621 with the first Thanksgiving feast  More Puritans began leaving England, and the Massachusetts Bay Company formed in 1629 to colonize the lands around Plymouth

13 New England  Economically, the Plymouth and MA Bay Colony thrived Agriculture Fishing Ship building  Religiously, Puritan influence eroded Anne Hutchinson: completely rejected the Church of England ○ Banished from Massachusetts ○ Helped to form Rhode Island with Roger Williams  Colonies formed own institutions that were influential on the formation the United States Open-field agriculture, where the town worked together to feed each other Chamber of Deputies: representative government Body of Liberties (1641): guarantee of basic rights, precursor to the Bill of Rights

14 The Carolinas  North Carolina: formed by former servants of VA and MD in 1663  South Carolina: formed by former servants of the Barbados in 1663  Formed as one, until split in 1700s  Diversified economy, but leader in rice production Led to increase in slave labor

15 New York  Established in 1664 Took land away from the Dutch without a fight Renamed New Amsterdam to New York Self government nearly non-existent  New Jersey formed in 1665 by taking land away from New York Allowed for self government, making more attractive to settlement  Lost many settlers to more tolerant Pennsylvania Eventually enacted the Charter of Liberties to protect basic rights in 1683

16 The Quaker Settlements  The Quakers were a religious group that faced great persecution in England Pacifists Inner light: all people can be good Rejected slavery  Settled in several areas West New Jersey Delaware Pennsylvania  Eventually lost control of colonies and moved to Pennsylvania Settled by William Penn in 1681 Friendly relations with Native Americans First Frame of Government (1682) formed a representative gov’t Second Frame (PA Charter of Liberties) in 1683 revised the gov’t Equality of all religions and the sexes Quickly became an economic success

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