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Seclusion & Restraint: Prevention, Practices, Policy, & Politics Tim Lewis, Ph.D. University of Missouri OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions.

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Presentation on theme: "Seclusion & Restraint: Prevention, Practices, Policy, & Politics Tim Lewis, Ph.D. University of Missouri OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Seclusion & Restraint: Prevention, Practices, Policy, & Politics Tim Lewis, Ph.D. University of Missouri OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports pbis.org

2 This Afternoon Big Ideas – prompts to learn more Issues with the use of Seclusion & Restraint – Recommendations Alternatives – Prevention – Understanding function of behavior – Instructional strategies & Environmental supports

3 The Key Behavior is functionally related to the Teaching Environment

4 Big Ideas Build Positive Behavior Support Plans that teach pro-social “replacement” behaviors Create environments to support the use of pro- social behaviors 1.School-wide 2.Classroom 3.Individual student

5 Starting Point…. Educators cannot “make” students learn or behave Educators can create environments to increase the likelihood students learn and behave Environments that increase the likelihood are guided by a core curriculum and implemented with consistency and fidelity

6 Seclusion & Restraint

7 Restraint To restrain involves ‘‘preventing from doing, exhibiting, or expressing something,’’ and restraining means ‘‘limiting, restricting or keeping under control’’ (Webster, 2009)

8 Restraint Should Not be viewed as a behavior reductive technique Response to crisis when imminent danger or harm is present Only with trained personnel Document, Document, Document – Use information to prevent from happening again

9 Seclusion “Seclusion is the involuntary confinement of a student alone in a room or area from which the student is physically prevented from leaving” (CCBD, 2009) NOT: Appropriate use of “Time Out” – Brief removal from access to reinforcement “Cool down” or “Safe spot”

10 Seclusion Limited to no research demonstrating behavior reductive potential Associated with side effects including: – Aggression – Escape/Avoidance – Withdrawal

11 Danger with Both Negative Reinforcement --- Contingent removal of an aversive stimulus upon the occurrence of the target behavior that is associated with an increase in future occurrences of that behavior In Plain English = danger of being overused, misused, and abused because educators are “reinforced” for removing students displaying significant problem behavior

12 Further Danger Negative student outcomes Potential for physical harm (adults and students) Legal, social, & moral sanctions Use does not teach

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14 Good News 70% of state policies recommend pro-active and positive behavior support strategies Professional organizations (e.g., CCBD, NAMI, OSEP center on PBIS) also recommend pro- active and positive behavior support strategies

15 Even Better News Missouri has invested in building a state-wide regional network of support to districts/schools in positive behavior support pbismissouri.org

16 For More Information CCBD’s Position summary on the use of physical restraint procedures in school settings. CCBD’s Position summary on the use of seclusion in school settings. MSBA / DESE Model Policy Michigan Department of Education Supporting student behavior: Standards for the emergency use of seclusion and restraint.

17 7 Minutes Review the self assessment pp of handout With your neighbor, discuss strengths/concerns Identify sessions during the institute than can assist in addressing concerns

18 So What do We do Instead Evidence/Research-Based Practices

19 Research-Based Practices Academic – “Effective instruction” – Antecedent / setting modifications – Peer tutoring – Direct Instruction – Self-management targeting academic related skills – Opportunities to Respond

20 Research-Based Practices Behavior – Environmental modifications and supports – Contingent positive performance based feedback – Self Management – Social Skill Instruction (with maintenance and generalization strategies)

21 Research-Based Practices Related Supports* – Comprehensive case management / wrap around – Family supports/ parent training *limited empirical support

22 Putting Research-Based Practices In Place Prevention, Early Intervention and Individualized Student Supports through Positive Behavior Support Systems

23 Remember…. Educators cannot “make” students learn or behave Educators can create environments to increase the likelihood students learn and behave Environments that increase the likelihood are guided by a core curriculum and implemented with consistency and fidelity

24 The Challenge The “core curriculum” is often “punishment” to try and reduce problem behavior in school However, “ punishing ” problem behaviors (without a proactive support system) is associated with increases in (a) aggression, (b) vandalism, (c) truancy, and (d) dropping out.

25 Good News… Research reviews indicate that the most effective responses to school violence are: Social Skills Training Academic Restructuring Behavioral Interventions = instructional strategies - “teaching”

26 School-wide Positive Behavior Support SW-PBS is a broad range of systemic and individualized strategies for achieving important social and learning outcomes while preventing problem behavior OSEP Center on PBIS

27 Essential Features at the School Level Teams of educators within the school (administrator) Data-based decision making Instructional Focus – Teach & Practice Acknowledge student mastery of social skills – Positive Feedback

28 SYSTEMS PRACTICES DATA Supporting Staff Behavior Supporting Decision Making Supporting Student Behavior Positive Behavior Support OUTCOMES Social Competence & Academic Achievement

29 Academic SystemsBehavioral Systems 1-5% 5-10% 80-90% Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based High Intensity Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based Intense, durable procedures Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Universal Interventions All students Preventive, proactive Universal Interventions All settings, all students Preventive, proactive Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success

30 Universal School-Wide Features Clearly define expected behaviors (Rules) – All Settings – Classrooms Procedures for teaching & practicing expected behaviors Procedures for encouraging expected behaviors Procedures for discouraging problem behaviors Procedures for data-based decision making Family Awareness and Involvement

31 I am….All SettingsClassroomHallwaysCafeteriaBathroomsPlaygroundAssemblies SafeKeep bodies calm in line Report any problems Ask permission to leave any setting  Maintain personal space  Walk  Stay to the right on stairs  Banisters are for hands Walk Push in chairs Place trash in trash can  Wash hands with soap and water  Keep water in the sink  One person per stall  Use equipment for intended purpose  Wood chips are for the ground  Participate in school approved games only  Stay in approved areas  Keep body to self Walk Enter and exit gym in an orderly manner Respect- ful Treat others the way you want to be treated Be an active listener Follow adult direction(s) Use polite language Help keep the school orderly  Be honest  Take care of yourself  Walk quietly so others can continue learning  Eat only your food  Use a peaceful voice  Allow for privacy of others  Clean up after self Line up at first signal Invite others who want to join in Enter and exit building peacefully Share materials Use polite language  Be an active listener  Applaud appropriately to show appreciation A Learner Be an active participant Give full effort Be a team player Do your job Be a risk taker Be prepared Make good choices  Return to class promptly Use proper manners Leave when adult excuses Follow bathroom procedures Return to class promptly Be a problem solver Learn new games and activities Raise your hand to share Keep comments and questions on topic Benton Elementary School

32 RAH – at Adams City High School (Respect – Achievement – Honor) RAHClassroomHallway/ Commons CafeteriaBathrooms Respect Be on time; attend regularly; follow class rules Keep location neat, keep to the right, use appropriate lang., monitor noise level, allow others to pass Put trash in cans, push in your chair, be courteous to all staff and students Keep area clean, put trash in cans, be mindful of others’ personal space, flush toilet Achievement Do your best on all assignments and assessments, take notes, ask questions Keep track of your belongings, monitor time to get to class Check space before you leave, keep track of personal belongings Be a good example to other students, leave the room better than you found it Honor Do your own work; tell the truth Be considerate of yours and others’ personal space Keep your own place in line, maintain personal boundaries Report any graffiti or vandalism

33 Academic SystemsBehavioral Systems 1-5% 5-10% 80-90% Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based High Intensity Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based Intense, durable procedures Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Universal Interventions All students Preventive, proactive Universal Interventions All settings, all students Preventive, proactive Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success

34 Tier II (small group) Efficient and effective way to identify at-risk students – Screen – Data decision rules Informal assessment process to match intervention to student need & function of problem behavior – Small group Social Skill Instruction – Self-management – Academic Support Part of a continuum – must link to universal school-wide PBS system

35 Academic SystemsBehavioral Systems 1-5% 5-10% 80-90% Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based High Intensity Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based Intense, durable procedures Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Universal Interventions All students Preventive, proactive Universal Interventions All settings, all students Preventive, proactive Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success

36 Tier III (individualized support) When small group not sufficient When problem intense and chronic Driven by Functional Behavioral Assessment Connections to Mental Health and Community Agencies Part of a continuum – must link to universal school-wide PBS system

37 Why Invest in SW-PBS? Change in school discipline system creates an environment that promotes, teaches, and acknowledges appropriate behavior Reduction in problem behavior resulting in less staff time dealing with problems, more student time in the classroom Improved academic performance Improved social behavior performance Improved school safety, mental health connections, and individual interventions

38 Centennial School

39 Centennial School Police Contacts

40 The Connect Point Across the Continuum Classroom Management & Instruction

41 The Challenge Students spend majority of their school day in the classroom Majority of “discipline problems” originate in the classroom and often result in removal from instruction Remaining engaged in instruction essential to student academic and social success “Culture” of education often reinforces ineffective practices and creates barriers to implementing effective practices

42 Basic Steps 1.Focus on what you want students to do “instead” (replacement behaviors) 2.Look for patterns of behavior that suggest “functional relationships” 3.Teach replacement behavior and provide multiple opportunities to practice 4.Deliver high rates of positive feedback/same similar outcome as problem behavior when students display replacement behavior

43 Setting up the Classroom Environment Establishing expectations : – What do I want my classroom to look like? – How do I want children to treat me as a person? – How do I want children to treat one another? – What kind of information or values do I want to communicate to students about being an adult, an educator, a woman or a man in today's society? – How do I want children to remember me when the last day of school ends and I am no longer part of their daily lives?  How can I change my instruction to help pupils develop the skills I am trying to teach? Bottom line = ask if students have pre-requisite and requisite skills to succeed based on each of the answers – if not, teach and practice

44 Classroom Essentials* 1.Classroom expectations & rules defined and taught 2.Procedures & routines defined and taught 3.Continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior in place and used with high frequency (4:1) 4.Continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior in place and used per established school- wide procedure 5.Students are actively supervised 6.Students are given multiple opportunities to respond (OTR) 7.Activity sequence promotes optimal instruction time and student engaged time 8.Instruction is differentiated based on student need

45 “Learning Errors” How are you going to prevent it from happening again? 1.Minors addressed quickly and quietly/privately 2.School wide procedures for majors are followed 3.Upon “return,” debrief and plan to prevent 1.What does student need? 2.What can we do to help?

46 “Appropriate” Responses to Learning Errors If student removed from learning environment, create opportunities to teach/practice replacement behaviors Natural consequences (is it “punishment” from the student’s perspective) Changes within and across environments to promote appropriate behavior

47 A Classroom Example…

48 Study Basics Subject: – Seven years old – Identified with EBD and ADHD Setting – General education 2 nd grade classroom with 19 other students – One licensed teacher and one student teacher Concern – Student exhibits high rates of off-task – Student shouts out answers and questions and comments at high rates and often inappropriate

49 “Function of Behavior” Descriptive (interviews and teacher reported ABC/ Scatterplot data) – Function identified as Attention – Significant antecedents: multiple step direction and group settings – Very High rates of both problem behaviors reported/ inconsistency in accuracy of data collection

50 “Environment Assessment” Significant variables: clarity of expectations & directions consistency of expectations accessibility of class schedules lack of enforced procedures (especially regarding to hand raising and verbalizations or entire class)

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53 Understanding the Function of Behavior Individual Student PBS Plans

54 Essential Steps to Individual PBS Plans 1.Request for assistance/Noted concern 2.Operationally define problem/replacement behavior 3.Background/archival data/ data collection/Environmental Assessment 4.Functional Behavioral Assessment –Indirect measures –Direct observation 5.Develop hypothesis regarding function of problem behavior 6.Develop a PBS plan –Social skill instruction –Self management –Environmental modifications 7.Implement, Monitor and Evaluate progress

55 When To Conduct a Functional Assessment When student exhibits patterns of challenging behavior When a change in placement is made as a result of a school “discipline” procedure (IDEA) When current behavioral intervention plan is not changing the pattern and/or outcome of behavior

56 IDEA (f) Determination that behavior was a manifestation. If the LEA, the parent, and relevant members of the IEP Team make the determination that the conduct was a manifestation of the child's disability, the IEP Team must-- – (1) Either-- (1) (i) Conduct a functional behavioral assessment, unless the LEA had conducted a functional behavioral assessment before the behavior that resulted in the change of placement occurred, and implement a behavioral intervention plan for the child; or (i) (ii) If a behavioral intervention plan already has been developed, review the behavioral intervention plan, and modify it, as necessary, to address the behavior; and (ii) – (2) Except as provided in paragraph (g) of this section, return the child to the placement from which the child was removed, unless the parent and the LEA agree to a change of placement as part of the modification of the behavioral intervention plan. (2) IDEA.ED.GOV

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58 FBA Basics Behavior is functionally related to the teaching environment Behavior is learned based on past outcomes – To Get – To Avoid Behavior is maintained by predicting same/similar outcomes

59 Determining the Function Examine: – Events that happen prior to school/class (Setting Events) – Events that prompt behavior (Antecedent) – Events that follow behavior (Consequence)

60 Antecedents Events that trigger or prompt a behavior The student can predict the outcome of the behavior when the cue is present What is happening before the behavior occurs? – Classroom environment – Academic activities – Transition

61 Consequences Events that follow a behavior 1.The environment “gives” something to the student and the student maintains or increases the behavior = what is being given is reinforcing to the student 2.The environment removes the student from an activity or situation and the behavior maintains of increases = the event the student is avoiding is aversive to the student

62 FBA: Indirect Interviews Student behavior rating scales Environmental Assessment Record Review

63 Indirect: Record Review Attendance Health history Assessment data Previous educational functioning Onset of current problems Discipline referrals Past services or interventions – Effectiveness

64 Indirect: Classroom Assessment Physical Space Teacher Practices Organization Routines Behavior Management Informally as Part of Tier II process

65 FBA: Direct Direct Observation – ABC – Functional Analysis – Structural Analysis

66 To “Get” or “Avoid” Things student might get or acquire from behavior: – Attention – Something tangible – Access to preferred activities – Sensory stimulation Things students may avoid – Attention from adults or peers – Work tasks – Responsibilities – Sensory stimulation

67 Developing a Hypothesis When this occurs (setting condition) __________ The student does (problem behavior operationally defined) _______________ To get/avoid ___________

68 FBA-BIP/PBS-IEP Present Level – Hypothesis & supporting data – Dynamic – need to reassess when significant changes in environment Goals & Objectives – Target replacement behavior – Conditions in which FBA targeted – Measurable criteria Teaching plan separate from IEP

69 Key Features of Successful Plans Behavior within objective based on a “functionally equivalent” replacement Supplemental teaching plan clearly delineates – What environment changes should be made – What adults will do when replacement behavior displayed (Same/Similar Function!!!) – What adults will do if problem behavior displayed (Not feed function)

70 Homework Review the School-wide / District-wide FBA Process Self Assessment (p. 28)

71 Responding to Escalating Behavior Pulling It All Together

72 1. Calm 2.Trigger 3. Agitation 4. Acceleration 5. Peak 6. De-escalation 7. Recovery Teach & Practice SWPBS / Classroom Student Self-management Environmental changes based on FBA Safety/Crisis Prevention Consequence Teach & Practice Env Supports Acting Out Cycle

73 Final Thoughts

74 1. “It’s just behavior” Its not personal… students engage in problem and appropriate behaviors to get needs met

75 2. Behavior is learned What you see is the result of risk factors within children’s past learning history (poverty, disability, academic failure, language, culture….)

76 3. Research continues to demonstrate the most effective strategies are instruction based Teach “what you want them to do instead” Focus on academic and social success in terms of linear growth, not absolute

77 4. Pause, step back,& smile The most effective strategies will fail to impact students in the absence of sincerity, respect, and obvious joy in teaching

78 For More Information OSEP Center for Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports pbis.org Missouri School-wide Positive Behavior Support pbismissouri.org IDEAS that Work osepideasthatwork.org What Works Clearinghouse Ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc


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