2Author’s Universal themes Theme is the _______________________ message about life or human nature.Some writers present themes that only apply to a particular time, place, or situation.Some themes are unique to a story as stated above, while others are recurring themes. Messages that appear repeatedly in literature.Some recurring themes are considered__________________ .These themes are recurring. They address big ideas so fundamental to human existence and true for most people that they occur in the literature of many time periods and cultures.Universal themes
3Good Triumphs over evil. Common UniversalThemesBelieve in yourselfYour example
4Identifying Theme Clues to Theme Sometimes theme is stated directly by the narrator or a character. More often, the theme is implied, which means you have to do some digging to uncover it.Clues to ThemeThe Title : What does the title refer to?Could the title have more than one meaning?Characters: what lesson does the character learn? How does the character change?Plot and conflict: conflict is central to the theme. What conflict is faced?How is it resolved?Setting: How does the setting affect the character or influence their actions?Important statements: What statements are made? Can it be reworded as the overall theme?Symbols: Does it stand for something beyond itself? What does it mean to the main character?
5SymbolAn object, activity, place, or person that stands for something beyond itself. When an object represents an idea.
6Myths and LegendsThere once was a time when computers and cell phones did not exist. It was a dark and frightening time.Events were explained through stories called myths.Most Myths:Were passed along through word of mouthFeatured gods or other supernatural beings who often show such human characteristics as anger or loveReveal consequences of human errorsExplain how something came to be
7The word mythology is Greek in origin (etymology) Mutho= StoryLogo= speech or argument.
8Greek and Roman Mythology is often called “Classical Mythology”
9Gods and Goddesses in Classical Mythology GreekZeusApolloHadesPoseidonHeraAthenaDemeterPersephoneRoman Area of PowerJupiter King of the gods; the skyApollo The sun; musicPluto King of the underworldNeptune Ruler of the seasJuno Wife of Zeus; marriageMinerva WisdomCeres Agriculture; earthProserpine Goddess of the underworld; Demeter’s daughter
10Creatures of Classic Mythology MedusaMinotaurCentaur
11VocabularyUse context clues to help you try to define the following terms:The gods adorn her with special gifts.She could no longer restrain her curiosity.Zeus’ subtle punishment was not immediately obvious.Her beauty and charm helped ensnare his attention.Adorn- to enhance or decorateEnsnare- to take or catch in somethingRestrain- to hold back; to controlSubtle- slight; difficult to detect
12“Pandora’s Box” and “Loo- Wit The Fire Keeper” Myths vary from culture to culture.They share basic features but differ in detail, style, and purpose.As you read the myths “Pandora’s Box” and “Loo-Wit the Fire Keeper,” notice the similarities and differences between the two stories.Also notice how the gods in these myths relate to humans.