Presentation on theme: "PCCYFS “Diversity of how youth relate…” Services for Males Chuck McLister."— Presentation transcript:
PCCYFS “Diversity of how youth relate…” Services for Males Chuck McLister
- 1 - Introduction Research: predominately done with male samples Compartmentalization: Antisocial behavior is the reason that we get referrals Agenda: –Normal Development –Delinquency Mechanisms—as studied primarily in males –Treatment Practices/Ideal characteristics –Violence Prevention, particularly against women –Discussion and Questions
- 2 - Normal Development—UNWRITTEN RULES Girls –Be a good girl! –If you can’t say something nice, don’t say anything at all –Girls don’t roughhouse –It’s okay to be weak –Act like a lady. –Girls need protecting Boys –Boys will be boys. –Don’t start fights, but stick up for yourself if you have to. –Don’t show your feelings –Boys don’t cry –Be strong –Boys can take care of themselves –“In the box.”( Chreighton & Kivel, 1995, 1998)
- 3 - Development of Delinquency Behavior Terms (Functional) –Increasing and Decreasing actions –Reinforcement (negative and positive) –Punishment (negative and positive) “positive reinforcement” cannot compete with entrenched negatively reinforced behaviors, particularly with aggression (Foxx, 2004). Infancy, Toddlers and Pre-adolescence –Coercive Processes (Patterson, 1992) Families Schools and Institutions Teenagers –Deviancy Training (Snyder, 2001; Dishion, Poulin & McCord, 1999; Dishion & Patterson, 1997) –Aggregation of delinquent youth is ill-advised Contextual Variables –Mediate, but do not cause, delinquency (Capaldi, DeGarmo, Patterson & Forgatch, 2001) –Bi-directional (Patterson & Granic, 2001)
- 4 - Delinquency Development—Boys vs. Girls Facts about juvenile delinquency (Walker, Colvin & Ramsey, 1995) –The vast majority of antisocial children are boys. –Naturally, most studies have been conducted with boys (Zoccolillo, 1993; Patterson, Reid & Eddy, 2001) –Antisocial behavior in boys is generally directed outward, in confrontational and externalizing forms. –Antisocial behavior early in a child’s school career is the single best predictor of delinquency in adolescence. –Antisocial boys can be identified accurately at age 3 or 4. –Reliable differences in aggression between genders as early as 3 years of age (Maccoby, 1998). Increases are maintained through mid- adolescence (Achenbach, 1991). –Negative reciprocity differences: Males are more likely to react negatively to an aversive stimuli (Patterson, 2001) –Boys are more responsive to negative reinforcement contingencies (Snyder & Patterson, 1986) “Winning is reinforcing” –Adult reactions to aggressive behavior in girls is to ignore it (Fagot & Leinbach, 1987; Maccoby, 1998)
- 5 - Development of Delinquency Late Onset Delinquency (Patterson, 1994; Patterson & Yoerger, 1993; 1997)) –Characterized by contact with JJ system in late teens –Usually associated with ACUTE contextual variables –Driven by deviant peer relationships (Patterson & Yoerger, 1997) –Not correlated with chronic or adult offending (Patterson & Yoerger, 1999) Early Onset Delinquency (Patterson & Yoerger, 2001) –Discontinuous, yet predictable (Patterson, Shaw, Snyder & Yoerger, 2001) –Early arrests, correlated with youthful coercive mechanisms (Pattreson, Forgatch, Yoerger, & Stoolmiller, 1998). –Sibling competition for negative reinforcement (Snyder & Stoolmiller, 2001) –Negative Teenage Peer Groups –Highly correlated with chronic, late teen delinquency (Patterson et al, 1998) –Highly correlated with adult offending and prison terms (Patterson & Yoerger, 2001; Stattin & Magnusson, 1991)
- 6 - Services for males Best Practice ??? Social Interaction Learning Model (boys of divorced, single mothers) (Forgatch & Degarmo, 2001) Adolescent Transitions Program (Dishion & Kavanagh, 2003) Linking Interests of Families and Teachers (Reid & Eddy, 2001) Characteristics (Dishion & Kavanagh, 2003; Patterson, Snyder and Reid, 2001) –Parent Training –Contextual Interventions –Adult Teamwork –Family Centered vs. Child Centered –Objective Feedback Self reporting problematic (Dishion, Patterson & Kavanagh, 1992) Preferably at a micro-social level –Highly supervised child interventions –For Boys, Violence Prevention
- 7 - Services for males Group activities (where interactions can be observed) Strong contingencies that punish aggressive behavior and reward pro social behaviors Avoid co-educational programming Focus on Violence Prevention Specialized Services (Fire Setters, Sex Offenders, etc…) Underreported Trauma (insert ethics graph)
- 8 - (Stat Watch) Sexual assaults victims by gender, 2001
- 9 - Violence Prevention for Boys (Kivel, 1995) Those in charge –Adults –Men –Wealthy people –Caucasians –Bosses –Teachers –Heterosexuals –Christians –Americans –Able-bodied Potential targets for violence –Children –Women –The poor –Minorities –Students –Gays, lesbians and bi- sexuals –Jews, Muslims, Buddhists –Immigrants –Disabled
Violence Prevention Causes (Walker, Colvin & Ramsey, 1998) –Temporal proximity –Situational risk factors –Activating events Intervention Approaches (Coie, 1994) –Incarceration alone does not work. –Punishment in the adult system comes too late. –Suppression programs are retaliative in nature and are training grounds for crime. –Boot camps do not affect recidivism rates more favorably than other programs –Day Treatment programs, with educational and rehabilitative components, appear to be far more effective, but are rarely available to an offender. –Interventions are best delivered to pre-schoolers.
Violence Prevention for Boys. ( Chreighton & Kivel, 1995, 1998) Boys growing into men, but what kind? –Hold in our pain –Turn our anger to violence Views of women Identification of physical, emotional and sexual abuse, and their antecedents. Connections between anger, power, violence and drugs Develop alternatives to violence—replacement skills
Intervention Steps (Walker, Colvin & Ramsey, 1998) Provide effective consequences of aggression. Teach non-aggressive responses. Stop aggression early. Restrict access to the instruments of aggression. Restrain and reform public displays of aggression. Correct the conditions of everyday life that foster aggression. Offer more attractive education options.