Presentation on theme: "Functional Assessment of Behavior and Positive Behavior Intervention: Addressing both the function and social context of the behavior Richard Van Acker,"— Presentation transcript:
Functional Assessment of Behavior and Positive Behavior Intervention: Addressing both the function and social context of the behavior Richard Van Acker, Ed.D. University of Illinois at Chicago College of Education (M/C 147) 1040 W. Harrison Chicago, Illinois 60607 firstname.lastname@example.org
School-wide Effective Behavior Systems 100% of students Clear expectations Teach behaviors Rules, routines and physical arrangements Effective instruction Policy of consistent Administrator & Staff Implementation Targeted Interventions At risk behavior Increased cues and prompts Intensive instruction Intensive Chronic behavior FBA & BIP
Clear classroom rules – actively teach and review clear expectations – examples and non-examples displayed during instruction and review. Quality differentiated instruction Systematic Interventions to address High rate, moderate to mild disruptive Behaviors (e.g. DRL Group Contingencies, Student/ Teacher Game, Good Behavior Game). Supplemental or Booster Instruction Significantly disruptive behavior – Partner classroom, Contingent observation time out FBA/BIP
The Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP) is to be informed by a Functional Assessment of the Student’s Behavior Select and define target behavior. Develop a hypothesis as to the function of the behavior. Collect data - –Indirect data collection –Direct data collection Validate the function and key context variables related to the behavior –Triangulation of data –Functional analysis Develop the Behavior Intervention Plan
Schools were not prepared for IDEA 97 Lack of personnel trained to conduct FBA and to develop adequate BIPs. The process does not coincide with the current disciplinary philosophies of many educators and administrators Lack of time. –To complete, –To implement, and –To evaluate
Schools have not fared well in recent litigation Schools often fail to conduct FBAs when required to do so. When FBAs are completed, they are often found to be inadequate BIPs are often not completed when required BIPs, when completed, are often inadequate. BIPs are poorly implemented. (Smith, 1999)
Behavior problems can occur for many different reasons: Knowledge deficits –Does not know what is expected –Not enough practice of skill –Has not learned to generalize skill To communicate intent - if language impaired –Indicate physical discomfort –Indicate frustration or need for help Sensory/Perceptual Needs –Stereotypic or self-injurious –Sensory input needs To Gain a Desired Goal Attention Peer affiliation Tangible reward Power/control/competence Justice/revenge To Escape/Avoid (Modified from: Neal & Cessna, 1993)
Selection of a Data Collection System Archival or Record Review –Previous discipline contacts –Previous referrals for special services Review of Permanent Products –Error analysis of student work Behavior Ratings or Checklists –ADHD Scales –Sociometric nominations/ratings –Child Behavior Checklist –Adaptive Behavior Scales –Task Analysis Checklists Standardized Tests –ISAT –ITBS –CAT Norm Referenced Tests –Curriculum Based Measurement –Teacher-made tests/probes Naturalistic Observation –Non-systematic observation Anecdotal Records ABC Analysis of Behavior –Systematic Observation BEAST-R Event Recording Duration Recording Latency Recording Time Sampling/Interval Recording Interviews –Student –Parents –Teachers –Peers –Other Significant Adults
Anecdotal Records DateComments, Action, or InformationSignature 10/23/02 10/24/02 10/25/02 10/28/02 Michael had a bad day today. Tried to call mother – no response. Good day – only one episode at lunch = calmed down quickly. Terrible day – throwing, kicking, and lots of loud crying. Had to be removed from class on several occasions. Pushed Rachel down on playground. Michael bit Sonya on the arm when she was working with him. This type of behavior is going to have to stop. If we RVA JHK
Antecedent-Response-Consequence AntecedentResponseConsequence Ms Katz asked Michael to hang up his coat. Ms. Katz restrains Michael to keep him from running out of the school. Michael begins to clam down – stops crying and appears to relax. Michael pushed Ms. Katz and ran down the hall. Michael starts to cry and bites Ms. Katz on the arm. Ms. Katz says, “That’s better.” and releases Michael from the restraint hold (basket hold). Ms. Katz had to run after Michael and restrain him. Ms. Katz continues to restrain Michael and to remain calm – attempting to allow Michael to relax and calm down too. Michael gets up quickly and runs out of the school building.
Error Analysis of Student Work 2319132512 + 14 +13 +64 +26 + 93 37 212 77 411 105 What seems to be the problem?
Data Triangulation Source 1Source 2Source 3Source 4
If Alternative Undesired Behavior is Displayed... Develop a goal for the reduction of the undesired behavior. Develop a goal for display of desired behavior.
Clear Expectations Far too often, the expectations for desired behavior are implied rather than clearly stated for everyone to understand. This is especially true for students with disabilities – these students do not always grasp the hidden curriculum of the school setting. Often stress what a student should not do, with no clear indication of what they should do.
How will this be taught to the students? Direct instruction related to the expected behavior. –Examples –Non-examples (close and far approximations) Opportunities to practice the desired behavior with feedback. Learning is a process – there will be errors.
Learn to “Double Dip” Combine academic and social skill instruction when teaching Identify critical needs and select readings that have this as the theme. Employ instructional strategies that allow students to learn and practice social skills. Whenever possible use instructional consequences for behavioral infractions Bibliotherapy Index
Student Recommended for CICO CICO Implemented Parent Feedback Regular Teacher Feedback Afternoon Check-out Morning Check-in CICO Coordinator Summarizes Data For Decision Making Bi-weekly Meeting to Assess Student Progress Graduate Program Revise Program
EAGLE Report Date ________ Student _______________ Teacher______________ 0 = No 1= Good 2= Excellent Be Safe Be Respectful Be Your Personal BestTeacher initials Keep hands, feet, and objects to self Use kind words and actions Follow directions Working in class Class 0 1 2 Recess 0 1 2 Class 0 1 2 Lunch 0 1 2 Class 0 1 2 Recess 0 1 2 Class 0 1 2 Total Points = Points Possible = 50 Today ______________% Goal ______________%
Selecting an Appropriate Consequence (Function vs. Form) The nature of the surface behavior has little to do with the selection of an appropriate consequence. The function of the behavior should serve to direct the selection of the consequence.
Instructional Consequences Problems on playground Aggression Disrespect/ Insubordination Truancy Structured play group for a specified period of time. Intensive anger management curriculum. Lessons on dealing with authority and an adult mentor Service learning activity
Simple Consequence to Reduce High Rate Behaviors
INTENT Honest and Caring Communication and Feedback BEHAVIOR IMPACT What did you observe? How did it make you feel? Was that the intention of the individual?
Behavior Intervention Plans... Must support desired alternative behaviors that allow student to meet their needs Must seek to make the current undesired behavior less effective in meeting the student’s need.
Blueprints for Intervention Identify common behavior problems in your school. Identify possible alternative behaviors that should be taught. Explore the various functions for these behaviors and identify: –Ways teachers can teach desired behaviors and provide necessary practice and feedback. –Teacher behaviors and interventions to avoid. –Potentially effective ways to reinforce desired behavior. –Potentially appropriate ways to address undesired behavior. www.dpi.state.wi.us/dpi/dlsea/een/ebdbluepri.html
Altering the Social Context to Support Behavior Change Interventions that only target a change in student behavior without addressing the social context of the behavior are doomed to fail. Teacher behavior, the demands of the curriculum, peer affiliations, and family play a critical role in supporting behavior change.
General Education Teachers Must Implement the IEP Teachers have the responsibility to be aware of the student’s IEP. Teachers must make a reasonable effort to implement the IEP as written Teachers can be held liable (in civil court) for failure to implement a student’s IEP as directed by their district administration.
To effectively impact student behavior, we must openly address teacher behavior For the most part student behavior works and there is little incentive for students to change. Teachers are not receiving the support and guidance they require to be successful with an increasingly diverse student population. Students pay the price!!! F
Most schools have a teacher who screams at children. Screaming at children or using interventions that embarrass or belittle children are seldom effective. These have an impact on the entire school climate. Who deals with the teacher who screams at your school? Why do they scream?
Teacher Attention and Feedback Opportunity to Respond Verbal Reprimand for Behavior Verbal Praise for Academics Verbal Praise for Behavior Academic Correction ///// //// (14) // (2) ///// /// (8) /// (3) // (2) /// (3) ///// ///// // (12) // (2)
Providing Support and Honest Feedback to Teachers Pre-Helping Phase –Awareness –Attending – S.O.L.E.R Phase 1- Problem Identification –Respect –Genuiness –Concretness –Empathy Phase 2 – Deeper Exploration –Additive Empathy –Self Disclosure –Confrontation Phase 3- Developing Action Plans –Brainstorming –Evaluation of Options –Action Planning
Developing systems of teacher support Teacher collaborators Technological supports –Audio and video recording –Timers and other cues Peer Triads/Peer Monitoring Automatic triggers for support of teachers and students –Third student referral –Fifth teacher referral Programs for change and support - in-service staff development
Monitoring Implementation The most common causes for the failure of behavior intervention programs are: –the failure to implement the program –the improper implementation of the program
Change is Like Going to Heaven; Everyone Thinks It’s a Good Idea, but No One Wants to Go First.