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Chapter 10 Market Power: Monopoly
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 102 Review of Perfect Competition P = LMC = LRAC Normal profits or zero economic profits in the long run Large number of buyers and sellers Homogenous product Perfect information Firm is a price taker
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 103 Review of Perfect Competition Q P Market DS Q0Q0 P0P0 Q P Individual Firm P0P0 D = MR = P q0q0 LRACLMC
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 104 Monopoly 1.One seller - many buyers 2.One product (no good substitutes) 3.Barriers to entry 4.Price Maker
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 105 Average and Marginal Revenue The monopolist’s average revenue, price received per unit sold, is the market demand curve Monopolist also needs to find marginal revenue, change in revenue resulting from a unit change in output
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 106 Average and Marginal Revenue Output 1234567 0 1 2 3 $ per unit of output 4 5 6 7 Average Revenue (Demand) Marginal Revenue
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 107 Monopoly Observations 1.To increase sales the price must fall 2.MR < P 3.Compared to perfect competition No change in price to change sales MR = P
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 108 Monopolist’s Output Decision 1.Profits maximized at the output level where MR = MC 2.Cost functions are the same
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 109 Lost profit P1P1 Q1Q1 Lost profit MC AC Quantity $ per unit of output D = AR MR P* Q* Monopolist’s Output Decision P2P2 Q2Q2
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1010 The Multi-plant Firm For some firms, production takes place in more than one plant, each with different costs Firm must determine how to distribute production between both plants 1.Production should be split so that the MC in the plants is the same 2.Output is chosen where MR=MC. Profit is therefore maximized when MR=MC at each plant.
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1011 The Multi-plant Firm We can show this algebraically: Q 1 and C 1 is output and cost of production for Plant 1 Q 2 and C 2 is output and cost of production for Plant 2 Q T = Q 1 + Q 2 is total output Profit is then: = PQ T – C 1 (Q 1 ) – C 2 (Q 2 )
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1012 The Multi-plant Firm Firm should increase output from each plant until the additional profit from last unit produced at Plant 1 equals 0
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1013 The Multi-plant Firm We can show the same for Plant 2 Therefore, we can see that the firm should choose to produce where MR = MC 1 = MC 2 We can show this graphically MR = MC T gives total output This point shows the MR for each firm Where MR crosses MC 1 and MC 2 shows the output for each firm
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1014 Production with Two Plants Quantity $/Q D = AR MR MC 1 MC 2 MC T MR* Q1Q1 Q2Q2 QTQT P*
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1015 The Social Costs of Monopoly Power Monopoly power results in higher prices and lower quantities However, does monopoly power make consumers and producers in the aggregate better or worse off? We can compare producer and consumer surplus when in a competitive market and in a monopolistic market
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1016 The Social Costs of Monopoly Perfectly competitive firm will produce where MC = D P C and Q C Monopoly produces where MR = MC, getting their price from the demand curve P M and Q M There is a loss in consumer surplus when going from perfect competition to monopoly A deadweight loss is also created with monopoly
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1017 B A Lost Consumer Surplus Because of the higher price, consumers lose A+B and producer gains A-C. C Deadweight Loss from Monopoly Power Quantity AR=D MR MC QCQC PCPC PmPm QmQm $/Q Deadweight Loss
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1018 The Social Costs of Monopoly Social cost of monopoly is likely to exceed the deadweight loss Rent Seeking Firms may spend to gain monopoly power Lobbying Advertising Building excess capacity
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1019 The Social Costs of Monopoly The incentive to engage in monopoly practices is determined by the profit to be gained The larger the transfer from consumers to the firm, the larger the social cost of monopoly
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1020 The Social Costs of Monopoly Government can regulate monopoly power through price regulation Recall that in competitive markets, price regulation creates a deadweight loss Price regulation can eliminate deadweight loss with a monopoly Reduce price to competitive levels
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1021 The Social Costs of Monopoly Power Natural Monopoly A firm that can produce the entire output of an industry at a cost lower than what it would be if there were several firms Usually arises when there are large economies of scale Price Regulation would result in a price above competitive price but below monopoly price
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1022 MC AC AR MR $/Q Quantity Setting the price at P r giving profits as large as possible without going out of business QrQr PrPr PCPC QCQC If the price were regulate to be P c, the firm would lose money and go out of business. Can’t cover average costs PmPm QmQm Unregulated, the monopolist would produce Q m and charge P m. Regulating the Price of a Natural Monopoly
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1023 Limiting Market Power: The Antitrust Laws Market power harms some players in the market – buyer or seller Market power reduces output, leading to deadweight loss Excessive market power could raise problems of equity and fairness
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1024 Limiting Market Power: The Antitrust Laws What can we do to limit market power and keep it from being used anti- competitively? Tax away monopoly profits and redistribute to consumers Difficult to measure and find all those who lost Direct price regulation of natural monopolies Keep firms from acquiring excessive market power Antitrust laws
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1025 The Antitrust Laws Rules and regulations designed to promote a competitive economy by: Prohibiting actions that restrain or are likely to restrain competition Restricting the forms of allowable market structures Monopoly power arises in a number of ways, each of which is covered by the antitrust laws
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1026 Limiting Market Power: The Antitrust Laws Sherman Act (1890) – Section 1 Prohibits contracts, combinations, or conspiracies in restraint of trade Explicit agreement to restrict output or fix prices Implicit collusion through parallel conduct Form of implicit collusion in which one firm consistently follows actions of another Example In 1999, four of the world’s largest drug and chemical companies were found guilty of fixing prices of vitamins sold in US
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1027 Limiting Market Power: The Antitrust Laws Sherman Act (1890) – Section 2 Makes it illegal to monopolize or attempt to monopolize a market and prohibits conspiracies that result in monopolization Clayton Act (1914) 1.Makes it unlawful to require a buyer not to buy from a competitor
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1028 Limiting Market Power: The Antitrust Laws Clayton Act (1914) 2.Prohibits predatory pricing The practice of pricing to drive current competitors out of business and to discourage new entrants in a market so that a firm can enjoy higher future profits 3.Prohibits mergers and acquisitions if they “substantially lessen competition” or “tend to create a monopoly”
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1029 Limiting Market Power: The Antitrust Laws Robinson-Patman Act (1936) Amendment to the Clayton Act Prohibits price discrimination if it causes buyers to suffer economic damages and competition is reduced
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1030 Limiting Market Power: The Antitrust Laws Federal Trade Commission Act (1914, amended 1938, 1973, 1975) 1.Created the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) 2.Supplements the Sherman and Clayton Acts by fostering competition through a set of prohibitions against unfair and anticompetitive practices Prohibitions against deceptive advertising, labeling, agreements with retailer to exclude competing brands
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1031 Enforcement of Antitrust Laws Antitrust laws are enforced three ways: 1.Antitrust Division of the Department of Justice A part of the executive branch – the administration can influence enforcement Fines levied on businesses; fines and imprisonment levied on individuals
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1032 Enforcement of Antitrust Laws 2.Federal Trade Commission Enforces through voluntary understanding or formal commission order 3.Private Proceedings Can sue for treble damages (threefold damages) Individuals or companies can also ask for injunctions to force wrongdoers to cease anticompetitive actions
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1033 Enforcement of Antitrust Laws US antitrust laws are stricter and more far reaching than the rest of the world Some have claimed this has hindered US competing in international markets With growth of European Union, methods of antitrust enforcement have evolved Similar to US laws with some procedural and substantive differences Europe only imposes civil penalties
Market Power: Monopoly and Monopsony
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