Presentation on theme: "The American Ideal of a Great Leader"— Presentation transcript:
1The American Ideal of a Great Leader 调查表明林肯是美最伟大总统 小布什位居其次 新华网 （ :32:47）稿件来源：新华社电稿 新华网华盛顿２月１８日专电 美国广播公司（ＡＢＣ）日前公布的一份民意测验结果显示，亚伯拉罕·林肯被认为是美国历史上最伟大的总统，肯尼迪和小布什位居其次。 在这项谁是美国最伟大的总统的民意测验中，２０％的人投了林肯的票，肯尼迪和小布什的得票率分别为１４％和１３％，里根、克林顿和富兰克林·罗斯福平分秋色，得票率均为８％。而在一年前ＡＢＣ所做的类似测验中，名列前三位的是里根、肯尼迪和林肯。 若按党派划分，多数接受测验的民主党人认为林肯和肯尼迪不分伯仲，不过林肯却在无党派人士中轻易地找到了多数支持者，多数共和党人则认为，林肯和布什同属最佳，里根稍逊一筹。 民意测验结果还有一点颇令人费解。尽管１４０年前林肯解放了黑人奴隶，但他在黑人心目中的地位却并非最高—多数黑人认为克林顿才是最伟大的总统。另外，在６５岁（含）以上的老人中，富兰克林·罗斯福的口碑最佳。 这项结果是ＡＢＣ于２月１３日至１７日对１０２５名成年人进行调查后得出的。
2There's a heroIf you look inside your heartYou don't have to be afraid of what you areThere's an answerIf you reach into your soulAnd the sorrow that you know will melt away
3And then a hero comes along With the strength to carry onAnd you cast your fears asideAnd you know you can surviveSo when you feel like hope is goneLook inside you and be strongAnd you'll finally see the truthThat a hero lies in you
4It's a long roadWhen you face the world aloneNo one reaches out a handfor you to holdYou can find loveIf you search within yourselfAnd the emptiness you felt will disappear
5And then a hero comes along With the strength to carry onAnd you cast your fears asideAnd you know you can surviveSo when you feel like hope is goneLook inside you and be strongAnd you'll finally see the truthThat a hero lies in you
6What do you know aboutAbraham Lincoln?When did the American CivilWar break out?What is the main cause of the war?How long did the war last?
7Abraham Lincoln (1861-1865) 16th President of the United States Born: February 12, 1809, Kentucky Nickname: "Honest Abe"; "Illinois Rail-Splitter" Religion: No formal affiliation Marriage: November 4, 1842, to Mary Todd ( ) Career: Lawyer Political Party: Whig; Republican Died: April 15, 1865, Washington, D.C.
8is much loved byOf all figures from America's past Abraham Lincoln is dearest to the hearts of the American people. In fact, the admiration they have had for him borders on worship. Writers note the fact that the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C. is not unlike the temples that ancient Greeks built in honor of their gods, and that the annual ceremony of celebrating Lincoln's birthday in schools and other public places has sometimes had characteristics of a religious service.
9What is the last observation? Whether this last observation is true or not, certainly Lincoln is America's ideal of a great leader. He had many of the qualities of leadership that have appealed to Americans.What is the last observation?What is the author going to discuss in the following paragraphs?Reasonsfor hispopularity:First of all also Furthermore
10What do you know about American dream? First of all, Lincoln's career fits a popular American belief that every child can dream of becoming president. In other words, no matter how humble a person's beginning, there is no class system that prevents him or her from becoming a leader in industry, government, or any of the professions if he or she has ambition, brains, and a willingness to work.What do you know about American dream?
11Americans admire the self-made person— the one who, with neither money nor family influence, fights his or her way to the top. Lincoln was born of poor parents. His mother died when he was young. The shack in which he and his father lived one winter had only three walls; the fourth side was open to the weather. He had little opportunity for schooling. Most of his early study was done by himself at night by the light of awas exposed toWhen Lincoln was aged 7, his family moved into untracked wilderness of Indiana. it was late fall, and there was time only to pull together a crude three-sided shelter of logs, brush and leaves. The open side was protected by a blazing fire that had to be filled up at all times. The only water was more than 1 km. away. For food the family depended almost entirely on game.
12cause himself well-known fireplace. He did hard manual labor through the day--splitting rails for fences, taking care of livestock, working on a riverboat or in a store. But as he grew older he studied law in his spare time and set up a practice. He was a good speaker and student of political philosophy. His ability finally made a name for him, and eventually he became president of the United States.start a businesscause himself well-known林肯当过律师。有一次出庭，对方律师把一个简单的论据翻来覆去地陈述了两个多小时，讲得听众都不耐烦了。好不容易才轮到林肯上台替被告辩护，他走上讲台，先把外衣脱下放在桌上，然后拿起玻璃杯喝了两口水，接着重新穿上外衣，然后再脱下外衣放在桌上，又再喝水，再穿衣，这样反反复复了五六次，法庭上的听众笑得前俯后仰。林肯一言不发，在笑声过后才开始他的辩护演说。All I am , or can be, I owe to my angel mother. (Abraham lincoln, American president) 我之所有，我之所能，都归功于我天使般的母亲。(美国总统林肯) We know nothing of what will happen in future , but by the analogy of past experience. (Abraham Lincoln , American president) 除了凭着对过去的经验加以类推之外，我们对今后的事一无所知。Always bear in mind that your own resolution to succeed is more important than any one thing. --Abraham Lincoln 永远记住：你自己的取得成功的决心比什么都重要。 Towering genius disdains a beaten path. He seeks regions hitherto unexplored. --Abraham Lincoln 卓越的天才不屑走旁人走过的路。他寻找迄今未开拓的地区。
13Lincoln is also admired because of his leadership during the difficult period of the Civil War. He dared to do what he thought was right at a time when his beliefs were unpopular with many people. He, in a sense, represents the spirit of union among the states. Before the Civil War, the economy of the South depended upon the plantation system, which made use of slave labor. Reformers in the northern states put so much pressure upon Congress not to
14extend slavery to territories destined for statehood that some of the southern states wanted to secede from the United States. They argued that the question of slavery was a matter for the individual states to decide rather than the federal government, and they did not want to submit to its decision. The national government in Washington said that no state had the right to secede, and the Civil War was the result. If the South had won the war, what is now the United Statesthose areas that the American government planned to turn into new states
15might well have been divided into several countries with regional interests and problems. Lincoln dedicated himself to preserving the Union, and the northern states with him at their head were victorious. Americans from both the North and the South now generally feel that keeping the states together as one country has produced long-range benefits, and Lincoln has received much of the credit for holding the Union together.under his leadership长距离，长远的Can you guess the meaning of “credit”?
16Furthermore, Lincoln had many personal qualities that made him dear to the hearts of his countrymen. He had infinite patience and tolerance for those who disagreed with him. As president, he appointed the men to his cabinet whom he considered most capable for the job, even though some of them openly scorned him and humiliated him. He bore their discourtesy toward him有人认为林肯对待政敌的态度不够强硬，对他说：“你为什么要让他们成为朋友呢？你应该想办法消灭他们才对。”“我难道不是在消灭政敌吗？当我使他们成为我的朋友时，政敌就不存在了。”林肯温和地说。
17with admirable restraint. He was generous to his opponents with admirable restraint. He was generous to his opponents. There are many stories about his courteous treatment of southern leaders. When the war was over, he bore the South no malice. Since generosity toward a defeated opponent is admired by Americans, Lincoln fitted the national ideal of what is right.not to hate sb.“ideal” also appears in the title. What does it mean in both places?
18She has a white handkerchief edged with blue. Find the topic sentence in this Para.Shortly after the Civil War was over, Lincoln was shot one night while attending a play in a Washington theater. He died within a few hours.Newspapers were edged with black. His funeral procession in Washington was miles long. Lincoln's body was taken by train back to his former home in Springfield,She has a white handkerchief edged with blue.The reaction of the nation to his death was almost unbelievable.
19Illinois, but in all the major cities through which the train passed, the casket was paraded through streets lined with mourning thousands. In the small towns through which the train passed, bells rang in honor of the dead president. Citizens lit torches along the railroad track to show their last respects. It took the train twelve days to reach Springfield.of people
20Thus the circumstances of his death made him a martyr for a cause about which people were already highly emotional. Had Lincoln lived, it might well be that his postwar policies would have brought criticism upon him that would have tarnished his popularity. Instead, an assassin's bullet erased in the minds of Americans any faults he had and emphasized his virtues.
21Why does the author say the admiration Americans have had for Lincoln borders on worship? 1. Lincoln Memorial is like the temples ancient Greeks built in honor of their gods.2. The celebration of Lincoln’s birthday is sometimes like a religious service.
22What qualities of leadership Lincoln had? Can you find examples? 1. Lincoln had courage to do right things.2. He dedicated himself to preserving the Union.
231. Patience and tolerance. 2. Generosity to his opponents. What are Lincoln’s personal qualities that make him loved by the American people?1. Patience and tolerance.2. Generosity to his opponents.3. His criterion for selectingmen suitable for the job.
24Can you find any examples? 1. Newspapers were edged with black.2. His funeral procession was miles long.3. It took the train carrying his casket 12 days to reach his hometown.
25Paraphrase family background. That’s to say, a person who has a strong desire to achieve greatness, is intelligent, and is willing to work hard can become a leader or succeed in any of the professions without depending on social status, money orfamily background.
26Appoint people on their merits. ParaphraseThough some people openly despised / looked down upon him or did things to destroy his dignity, Lincoln still chose them to be his chief or principal advisor of the state if he thought those people were capable.Appoint people on their merits.
28The virtue of the ruler is like wind and that of the commoner is like grass. The grass bends in the direction of the wind Confucius 君子之德风也，小人之德草也。草上之风，必堰。When one subdues men by force, they do not submit to him in heart. When one subdues men by virtue, they are pleased and sincerely submit in their heart. ----Mencius 以力服人者，非心服也；以德服人者，衷心悦而诚服也。
29Leadership is a combination of strategy and character Leadership is a combination of strategy and character. If you must be without one, be without the strategy Norman Schwarzkopf 领导是策略和性格的结合。如果非要少一个，就少策略。 In simplest terms, a leader is one who knows where he wants to go, and gets up, and goes. ---John Erksine 用最简单的术语，一个领导人是知道他想要去哪儿，然后起身，去到那儿。The difference between a boss and a leader: a boss says, “Go!”--a leader says,“ let‘s go” ----E.M.Kelly 一个老板和一个领导人之间的差别：老板说，“去”，领导人说，“让我们去”。
30border on / upon China borders on Burma in the south 1) touch at the edge or boundary 接壤2) be very much like 近似e.g. 中国西部同缅甸接壤，南部和老挝、越南毗连 。China borders on Burma in the southand Laos and Vietnam in the south.Such an action borders on madness.
31border, boundary, frontier 他站在得克萨斯和俄克拉荷马的边界上，两脚各在一方。He stood at the boundary between Texasand Oklahoma with one foot on either side.border指边境地带范围较广的地区Note: 边界boundary分界线等狭小的部分
32e.g. The frontier is protected by minefields and electric fence. the frontier between China and MongoliaChina’s Mongolian frontierthe border between China and MongoliaNote: frontier指某一国单方面提及的边界、边境；border可以用来指国与国之间的边界、边境。Frontier意味着设防的边界，要作护照、签证、海关等项检查。e.g. The frontier is protected by minefields and electric fence.China’s Mongolian frontier中国靠蒙古的边境the border between China and Mongolia中蒙边境边境上布有雷区和电网加以防守。
33memorial a ～ to the martyrs; a ～ meeting 林肯纪念馆 Lincoln Memorial 毛主席纪念堂 a. serving to preserve the memorya ～ to the martyrs; a ～ meeting林肯纪念馆 Lincoln Memorial毛主席纪念堂the Chairman Mao Memorial Hall人民英雄纪念碑the Monument to the People’s Heroes
34self-made 白手起家的；自学成功的 Can you guess the meanings of the following words?self-testing; self-chargingself-service; self-defenseself-appointed; self-centeredself-evident; self-exclusive
35ambition 胸怀大志 have great ～s / full of ～s n. strong desire实现抱负 achieve one’s ～(s)胸怀大志 have great ～s / full of ～sLittle men can never appreciate the high ～s of great minds.a. ambitiousbe ～ to do sth. 热切做某事be ～ of / for sth. 热望得到某物望子成龙be ambitious for children
36manual user’s manual a shorthand manual synonyms： by hand manual labor a manual typewriteruser’s manual a shorthand manualsynonyms： by handdirectory guidebook handbookantonyms： automaticCan you guess the meaning of “manuscript”?
37patience be out of patience with 对…耐不住 lose patience with sb. exhaust sb.'s patience 使某人忍无可忍Our patience has worn out.His rudeness drove me beyond the limit of my patience.synonyms： endurance indulgence perseverance persistence toleranceantonyms： impatience
38tolerance n. 容忍, 宽容, 耐性 ；公差, 容(许间)隙 show tolerance towards sb.have a limited tolerance to / of coldThe bridge was built to a tolerance of 1o millimeterstolerant: His own mistakes made him ~ towards others.Leaders should be ~ of opinions different from their own.tolerable: The pain was severe but ~ .
39I won’t ____ your rudeness. He has ____ great pain for a number of years.She can’t ____ the noise in the room.DCDA. bear B. standC. endure D. tolerate
40cabinet 储藏橱，陈列柜；内阁 a filing cabinet; medicine cabinet The cabinet meet / meets tomorrow to discuss this problem.This will be discussed in cabinet(=in a meeting of the cabinet).a shadow cabinet
41restraint e.g. without ~无拘无束; be kept under ~; 1) the quality of being restrained or restraining oneself; 2) control ; 3) restrictione.g. without ~无拘无束;be kept under ~;~s on the power of the presidentRestrict: keep within limits of size or number or to a certain limitcf. restrict: He ~s himself to (smoking) two cigarettes a day.
42restrain, refrain restrain=hold back from, control vt. ----Doesn’t your wife restrain you fromsmoking?----I have refrained from smokingever since our wedding.restrain=hold back from, control vt.refrain=hold oneself from, avoid vi.
43Translation：忍住不笑; 请勿吸烟（poster）！ restrain laughter refrain from laughingKINDLY REFRAIN FROM SMOKING!
44opponent proponent = oppone (oppose) + ent 对手，敌手；反对者 oppose vt.反对, 使对立, 使对抗, 抗争 vi.反对opposite adj. / n. 完全不同或相反的； 对面的，对过的e.g. Mary’s mother was opposed to her marriage to George.He lives in the dorm opposite (mine).
45reaction 1) an action in response to some influence 2) an action in the opposite direction to progress (+ against)vi. reacte.g. The eyes react to light.The audience reacted to his speech.Applause reacts on / upon the speaker.
46dedicate devote contribute ……to (doing) sth. 奉献 Translation: 我决心把我的一生献给教育事业。I am determined todevote / dedicate my whole life to the cause of education.
48in honor of : as a celebration of; show respect to e.g. They had a ceremony in honor of those killed in battles.A banquet was given in honor of his arrival.do honor to：向……表示敬意；给……带来荣誉All honors go to the collective.
49fight one’s way 类似结构：make one’s way shoulder one’s way elbow one’s way move along by struggling hard 奋斗前进e.g. She fought her way to the top of the company.He fought his way to the front of the line.类似结构：make one’s wayshoulder one’s wayelbow one’s way
50be born of Thomas Jefferson was born into wealth. + sb. (parents); + sth. (事物的起源、起因)e.g. It’s said that crime is born of poverty.His wish to become a doctor was born of the desire to help the sick.Thomas Jefferson was born into wealth.He was born with a silver spoon in his mouth.He was born to succeed.
51set up1) to establish or arrange (an organization, business, plan, etc.)e.g. ～ a council; ～ a fund2) to put into positione.g. ～ the roadblocks3) to establish (oneself or someone else) in business) as 从事某种职业e.g. His parents set him up as a dentist.He set (himself) up as a lawyer.
52be unpopular with / among be dislike, unfavored, etc. by sb.Translation:这些手工艺品很受外国朋友的欢迎。These artistic handicrafts are verypopular with foreign friends.
53submit to + n. / doing sth. D to cause to yield or agree; to obey e.g. They try to submit themselves to discipline.DEx. All these topics should ____ the committee for a discussion.A. be subjected to B. be stumbledC. be suppressed to D. be submitted to
55O Captain! my Captain! our fearful trip is done, The ship has weather'd every rack, the prize we sought is won,The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting,While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and daring;But O heart! heart! heart!O the bleeding drops of red,Where on the deck my Captain lies,Fallen cold and dead.啊，船长！我的船长！我们可怕的航程已经终了， 我们的船已安然渡过所有的难关，我们所追求的锦标也已经得到， 港口就在前面，我已听见钟声，听到了人们的欢呼， 千万只眼睛都在望着我们的船安稳前进，它是那样威严和勇敢； 可是，啊，心哟!心哟！心哟! 啊，鲜红的血滴， 就在那甲板上，我的船长躺下了， 他已浑身冰冷，心脏停止了跳动。
56O Captain! my Captain! rise up and hear the bells; Rise up--for you the flag is flung--for you the bugle trills,For you bouquets and ribbon'd wreaths--for you the shores a-crowding,For you they call, the swaying mass, their eager faces turning;Here Captain! dear father!This arm beneath your head!It is some dream that on the deck,You've fallen cold and dead.啊，船长！我的船长！起来听听这钟声， 起来吧，──旌旗爲你招展，──号角爲你长鸣， 爲你，岸上挤满了人群──爲你，人们准备了无数的花束和花环， 爲你。这雀跃的人群在欢呼，他们殷切的脸正对着你看； 这里，船长，亲爱的父亲！ 让你的头枕着我的手臂！ 真像是梦，躺在甲板上， 你已浑身冰冷，心脏停止了跳动。
57My Captain does not answer, his lips are pale and still, My father does not feel my arm, he has no pulse nor will,The ship is anchor'd safe and sound, its voyage closed and done,From fearful trip the victor ship comes in with object won;Exult O shores, and ring O bells!But I with mournful tread,Walk the deck my Captain lies,Fallen cold and dead.我的船长没有回答，他的嘴唇惨白，”一动不动， 我的父亲没有感觉到我的手臂，他已经没有脉搏，也没有意志， 我们的船已安全地下锚了，它的航程已经终了， 从可怕的航程归来，这胜利的船，目的已经达到； 啊，海岸欢呼，钟声长鸣！ 可我却以悲痛的步履， 漫步在甲板上，那里躺着我的船长 他已浑身冰冷，心脏停止了跳动。