Presentation on theme: "Next page LOGIC OF THE BUDGET PROCESS Governing is Budgeting: Budgets are the Primary Instruments through which Governments Announce their Purposes, Priorities,"— Presentation transcript:
Next page LOGIC OF THE BUDGET PROCESS Governing is Budgeting: Budgets are the Primary Instruments through which Governments Announce their Purposes, Priorities, and Intentions.
Jump to first page Overview Government Budgets are Spending Plans Traditional Budgets focus on OE Functions of Traditional Budgets The Budget Cycle The Incrementalist Insight Executive Budget Preparation and Execution
Jump to first page Government Budgets Are SPENDING PLANS for administrative units for a specified time, that are enacted into law
Jump to first page Class Exercise Federal Budget Challenge National Budget Simulation Federal Budget Simulation
Jump to first page Line-Item Budgets are Spending Plans Expressed in terms of objects of expenditure categories like: Personal services Supplies Other Services and Charges Capital Outlays for each administrative unit for a specified time (grouped a variety of different ways)
Jump to first page Traditional Budget Principles Comprehensiveness (the budget should include all revenue and expenditure); Annularity (each budget should span a single fiscal year); Balance (expenditures should reflect the revenues available); Transparency (the government should publish timely information on receipts and expenditures); Accuracy (the budget should accurately specify purchases -- purpose, amount, timing); Authoritativeness (public funds should be spent as authorized in law).
Jump to first page Functions of OE or Line- item Budget Fiscal Discipline and Control Restraining expenditure Insuring that budgets are executed as enacted TREASURY role Post audit vs. preaudit: purpose, execution Audit trail -- invoices, receipts, cancelled checks Provide information used in formulation of new budgets Management, efficiency, & planning for service requirements
Next page The Budget Cycle Preparation & Enactment Execution Audit and Financial Reporting
Jump to first page Phases of the Budget Cycle Executive Preparation A. Budget Guidance/Call for estimates B. Preliminary Estimates C. Consolidation Legislative consideration & enactment Execution (conduct of fiscal operations) Post-audit & evaluation & Reporting
Jump to first page Descriptive Analysis of Budget Preparation & Enactment Process Roles, Visions, Incentives Operating agencies – make requests Executive – issues guidance, negotiates and consolidates budget Legislature – approves budget
Jump to first page Incrementalism I The predominant strategy in budgeting is governance by precedent. To obtain this year’s solution (next year’s budget) take last years solution (current budget/baseline) modify it in light of the change in available resources and the changes in problems and available solutions,
Jump to first page Incrementalism II Budgets tend to evolve slowly as small marginal changes occur from year to year (with periodic dramatic changes). once an item is in the budget it remains in the budget. Another reason for governance by precedent is the openness of public decision making: it is completely defensible to make decisions based on ‘proven decisions from past years.
Jump to first page ENACTMENT: RULE INDUCED EQUILIBRIA Division of labor and jurisdiction not only greatly increases the productivity of American Legislatures, it also greatly increases the power of individual legislator to block legislation adverse to her constituents. 1.The committee system as a super-majority system/proliferation of committees 2.The committee system as a source of equilibrium
RULE INDUCED EQUILIBRIA Norm of reciprocity/log rolling-vote trading OVERSIGHT AND THE BUDGET Authorization/appropriation Compliance with Legislative intent Authorizing committee is also usually oversight committee
Next page EXECUTIVE BUDGET METHODS AND PRACTICE Preparation of Agency Budget Requests Review of Budgets Balancing the Overall Spending Plan Managing Budget Execution Audit & Evaluation
Jump to first page PREPARATION OF REQUESTS I Budget Instructions or Guidance Main Goals of the Executive Forecasts of Critical Operating Conditions and Prescribed BASELINE A Prescribed FORMAT A Time Schedule MAXIMUM Increase
Jump to first page PREPARATION OF REQUESTS II Agency Proposals Narrative -- Current Commitments and Expected Results from New Initiatives Detail Schedules establishing Baselines Cumulative Schedules Showing Effects of New Initiatives (up or down) on Details and Revised Totals Description dominates numbers. Budgeting is logic, justification, and politics -- not accounting.
Jump to first page Spenders’ Budget Tactics: Ubiquitous I Cultivation of an active and influential (well-organized) clientele Media Demonstrate competence Deliver Explain -- show understanding and mastery of cost estimates Honesty
Jump to first page Spenders’ Budget Tactics: Ubiquitous II Price Changes Workload Changes Methods Improvement New Services Full Financing
Jump to first page Spenders’ Budget Tactics: Contingent I Avoiding Cuts: Propose a study Cut Popular programs Dire consequences All or nothing You pick We are the experts Seeking Bucks for the Base Round up Sprinkling Physical units Workload and backlog
Jump to first page Spenders’ Budget Tactics: Contingent II Seeking New Bucks: Old stuff Initial commitment It pays for itself Spend to save Crisis Mislabeling What they did makes us do it Mandates Matching the competition It’s so small
Jump to first page Budget Justification -- Or, Why the Numbers in Next Year’s Budget are Different from this Year’s Major Programmatic Changes/New Services -- Major Cutbacks of Service levels Price/Wage Changes Workload Changes Methods Improvements Full Financing of Activities Initiated in the Current Year Deferred maintenance and/or replacement of equipment
Jump to first page Estimates: Grouped by Organization; Task, Purpose, Function, or Activity, AND OE or Account Code Wages and Salaries Non-Wage Personnel Costs Non-personnel Costs (Cost Drivers) Volume or activity level x Unit Price Ratios to another OE Adjustments to Prior Year’s Costs
Jump to first page EXECUTIVE REVIEW I Policy Rationale/Conformity with Executive Priorities Conformity with Budget Guidance/Including all Required Supplemental Documents Arithmetic
Jump to first page EXECUTIVE REVIEW II Linkages Program Changes Omissions Ratios, Shares, Trends Clear Tradeoffs
Jump to first page BALANCING THE CONSOLIDATED BUDGET Budget Message Summary Schedules Detail Schedules Performance Targets Supplemental Data Many on the Assumptions Presented in the Budget Guidance and Trends
Jump to first page EXECUTION Budget Authority (specifies by agency, timing, and account code the authority to spend) Obligations (enforced by anti- deficiency act) Inventory recorded Outlay Expense or Cost
Jump to first page BUDGET EXECUTION I Preventive Controls Procurement Personnel Pre-audit Allotments Feed-forward Controls -- Diagnostic Tools, e.g. variance measures Feedback Controls -- affect Next Year’s Budget, Fig. 3.1
Jump to first page BUDGET EXECUTION II Internal Controls Personal Responsibility Personnel Qualifications & Rotation Segregate Responsibilities Separate Operations and Accounting Maintain Controlled Proofs and Security Record Transactions -- complete journal and general ledger
Jump to first page Mismatch between Budget Focus and Financial Statements Agencies, of course, spend money to acquire and use assets, i.e., they generate expenses. They generate expenses to provide services and create capacities -- the capacity to achieve our foreign-policy objectives and to meet our overseas commitments. Expenses measure the cost of the assets actually consumed in the production of a good or service.
Jump to first page Mismatch between Budget Focus and Financial Statements Expense measurement, or accrual accounting, is one of the fundamental ideas of modern managerial accounting. And, assets consumed and services rendered are the focus of private sector accounting. Spending plans could be expressed in terms of obligations, outlays, purchases, or consumption. Note, however, that while the government accounts for outlays and tracks obligations, it does not account for expenses. Hence estimates of expenses are statistical in nature, i.e., they are not tied to the basic debit- and-credit accounting records of the government.
Jump to first page Thought Questions Some programs have an explicit revenue component and policy makers make decisions about revenues and program characteristics with the long term sustainability of the program in mind. For instance, unemployment insurance or Social Security and there are actuarial studies that give us an idea of where we need to be in 5, 10, 20, etc years both from a revenue and an expense perspective if the program is to be in balance. Why don’t we look at all program commitments this way?
Jump to first page Thought Questions Someone once told me the problem with government is that it is easy to spend someone else’s money. Do you think that is true?
Jump to first page Modern Budget Principles* Conditional, Approximate Balance; Decisional Efficiency (a good budgetary decision process minimizes conflict specifically and transaction costs generally where the conflict and costs contribute nothing to the substantive quality of the decisions); Feasible Comparisons (a good budgetary decision process will stimulate feasible comparisons by promoting competition or cooperation, as appropriate, among agencies for solving particular problems); *P.D. Larkey and Eric Devereux “Good Budgetary Decisions,”1999.
Jump to first page Modern Budget Principles* Uncertainty and Flexibility (a good budgetary decision process will give sufficient discretion to managers to respond to new information and circumstances); Stability (a good budgetary decision process will balance the frequency and intensity of program reviews with the need for stability); Multiple Budgets (a good budgetary decision process will explicitly recognize the need for different budgets for different purposes). *P.D. Larkey and Eric Devereux “Good Budgetary Decisions,”1999.
Jump to first page Class Exercise Minnesota Budget Balancer Cut the Massachusetts Budget
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