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Quick Quiz Cave, Sun, Evil.

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Presentation on theme: "Quick Quiz Cave, Sun, Evil."— Presentation transcript:

1 Quick Quiz Cave, Sun, Evil

2 Allegory of the Cave What do the shadows on the cave wall represent?
qualities the dead humanity’s fears sub-atomic particles ordinary physical objects

3 Allegory of the Cave What do the objects observed outside the cave represent? qualities physical objects Forms atoms and molecules philosophers

4 Allegory of the Cave What does the sun represent outside the cave?
the Form of yellow the unseen law of nature for Form of the Good the Philosopher King nothing, or, it represents itself

5 Allegory of the Cave When someone enlightened returns to the cave, Plato says they will be: bumbling and confused about cave life angry with those in the cave desirous to return to the world above a and b a and c

6 Analogy of the Sun What does the Form of the Good do?
creates all the other Forms makes objects visible makes objects intelligible a and b all of the above

7 Analogy of the Sun The Principle of Self-Diffusion says:
all evil will self-destruct entropy increases over time The Good wears away over time The Good logically must share good people will reproduce

8 Analogy of the Sun In the Scala Naturae, the top animal is: man angels
the king the pope the lion

9 Analogy of the Sun The Principle of Sufficient Reason says:
a good person never acts whimsically the universe must have a cause equal to or greater than itself every thing must have a cause equal to or greater than itself nothing exists or happens without a cause equal to or greater than itself everything that exists (except God) or happens (except Free Choice of the Will) has a cause equal to or greater than itself

10 The Problem of Evil The problem of evil is … How can God prevent evil?
How can God permit us to do evil? How can God exist given that evil exists? How can God do evil? How much evil will God allow?

11 The Problem of Evil The conclusion of the argument from evil says
No God exists No God is good No God is powerful No all-good, all-powerful God exists No all-knowing God exists

12 The Problem of Evil Why can’t God just restrain evil-doers?
Because God is not that powerful Because God cannot look on evil, and so cannot know who does evil Because God promised everyone, including evil people, freedom Because then no one’s actions would be morally significant Because restraining evil-doers is wrong

13 The Problem of Evil The problem with claiming evil is just a lack of goodness is … Everyone knows evil exists Evil is necessary for moral development Fighting evil is the whole reason for religion ‘Lack of goodness’ works just as well in the argument It is insulting to folks who’ve experienced evil

14 The Problem of Evil The theistic response to the fact that there are possible worlds where creatures have free will but do right all the time is: That is not a fact Those worlds are boring If creatures don’t sin, why would we need God? God can’t create those worlds, only creatures can Freedom implies disobedience

15 The Problem of Evil In the argument, unnecessary evils are those evils that … Are consequences of our free choices We can easily do without We call ‘natural evils’, like earthquakes and tornados Arise from mistakes and misunderstandings The devil and his demons produce

16 The Problem of Evil The trouble with probabilistic arguments from evil is: All probability is subjective We can’t establish any associations between God and evil Probability only results in opinion, not knowledge Probability only works in mathematics, not religion There is no trouble; that is the argument that works

17 Answers 2. E 3. C 4. C 5. E 6. E 7. D 8. E 9. B, C, D, & E acceptable 10. C 11. D 12. D 13. D 14. D 15. C 16. B

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