Shan zhu yu (Fructus Corni) Taste and Property: sour, slightly warm Meridian tropism: Liver and kidney Actions: augments the liver and kidneys, secures the primal qi, prevents abandonment Application: –For leakage of fluids due to weak essence with such symptoms as urinary frequency, incontinence, spermatorrhea, and excessive sweating. Used with bu gu zhi, for kidney yang deficiency, used with yi zhi ren, bai zhu for kidney qi deficiency –For excessive sweating, especially in cases of devastated yang and collapsed qi, as in shock. Also used when sweating was mistakenly induced as a treatment. Used with long gu, mu li, fu zi, ren shen for profuse sweating due to devastated yang, used with dang gui, shu di huang for nightsweats due to yang deficiency –For liver and kidney deficiency, used with shu di huang, shan yao, liu wei di huang wan, used with gou qi zi, i.e. zuo gui wan –For deficiency patterns of excessive uterine bleeding and prolonged menstruation, used with huang qi, long gu, i.e. gu chong tang Dosage: 6~12g Attention: contraindicated in cases with urinary pain and difficulty, or where there is damp-heat
Wu wei zi (Fructus Schizandrae) Taste and Property: sour, sweet and warm Meridian tropism: heart, kidney and lung Actions: contains leakage of lung qi, enriches the kidneys, constrains essences, stop diarrhea, generates fluids and inhibits sweating, quiets the spirit Application: –For chronic cough and wheezing due to lung deficiency or lung and kidney deficiency, used with ren shen, gan jiang, zi wan, bu fei tang, used with shu di huang, shan yao, i.e. du qi wan –For nocturnal emissions, spermatorrhea, vaginal discharge, and urinary frequency due to kidney deficiency, used with long gu and sang piao xiao, i.e. sang piao xiao san, also used for diarrhea associated with spleen and kidney deficiency, used with bu gu zhi, rou dou kou, i.e.si shen wan –For excessive sweating, used with ren shen, mai men dong, sheng mai san, used with huang qi, tian hua fen i.e. yu ye tang –For irritability, palpitations, dream-disturbed sleep and insomnia due to injury to yin and blood, used with suan zao ren, sheng di huang, i.e. tian wan bu xin dan Dosage: 3~6g Attention: contraindicated where an exterior disorder has not been cleared, or there is heat from excess in the interior, or in the early stages of a cough or rash
Wu mei (Fructus Mume ) Taste and Property: sour, astringent and warm Meridian tropism: LI, LV, LU, SP Actions: inhibits the leakage of lung qi, generate fluids, expels roundworms, binds up the intestine, stops bleeding Application: –For chronic cough due to lung deficiency, with xing ren, e jiao, zhi ban xia –For thirst due to heat form deficiency, or qi an yin deficiency, used with mai men dong, tian hua fen, used with sheng di huang, shan zhu yu and ze xie for diabetes –For roundworm-induced vomiting and abdominal pain, used with hua jiao, gan jiang, xi xin, i.e. wu mei wan –For incessant chronic diarrhea, or dysenteric disorders, used with ren shen, rou dou kou, he zi –For blood in the stool and excessive uterine bleeding accompanied by blood deficiency symptoms of dryness and thirst, used with huan hua, ce bai ye, ou jie together Dosage: 6~12g Attention: internal heat from excess and stagnation, or unresolved exteror disorders
Chi shi zhi (Halloysitum Rubrum ) Taste and Property: sour, sweet, astringent and warm Meridian tropism: LI, SP, ST Actions: binds up the intestines and stops diarrhea, contains the blood and stops bleeding, promotes healing of wounds Application –For chronic diarrhea, due to cold from deficiency, or chronic dysenteric disorders with mucus and blood in the stools, used with gan jiang, bai shao, i.e. tao hua tang –For uterine bleeding, excessive menstruation, blood in the stool, and bleeding prolapse rectum due to cold from deficiency of the lower burner, used with hai piao xiao, ce bai ye –Topically for chronic nonhealing ulcers, used with long gu, ru xiang, xue jie Dosage: 9~18g Attention: pregnancy, excess
He zi (Fructus Chebulae ) Taste and Property: sour, bitter, astringent and neutral Meridian tropism: LI, LU, ST Actions: binds up the intestines and stops diarrhea, contains the leakage of lung qi, improves the condition of the throat Application –For chronic diarrhea and dysenteric disorders, used with wi bei zi, wu mei for chronic dysenteric disorders, used with gan jiang, chen pi, ying su ke for severe diarrhea due to cold from deficiency –For chronic cough, wheezing, and particularly for loss of voice. Used with jie geng, gan cao for chronic hoarseness Dosage: 3~9g Attention: exterior, internal accumulation and stagnation of damp-heat
Rou dou kou (Semen Myristicae ) Taste and Property: acrid, warm Meridian tropism: LI, SP, ST Actions: binds up the intestines and stops diarrhea, warms the middle burner, moves the qi, and alleviates pain Application –For chronic diarrhea and dysenteric disorders due to cold from deficiency of the spleen and kidneys, used with bu gu zhi, wu wei zi, i.e. si shen wan –For pain and distention of the epigastrium and abdomen, reduced appetite, and vomiting due to cold from deficiency of the spleen and stomach, used with ban xia, gan jiang together Dosage: 3~9g Attention: hot diarrhea or heat in the stomach
Chun pi (Cortex ailanthi ) Taste and Property: bitter, astringent, cold Meridian tropism: LI, ST Actions: dries dampness, clears heat, binds up the intestines stops bleeding, kills parasites Application –For chronic diarrhea or dysenteric disorders, especially those due to damp-heat, particularly useful when there is blood in the stool, also used for vaginal discharge due to damp heat, used with gui ban, bai shao, huang qin, i.e gu jing wan –For roundworms. Applied extenally for pruritic dermatosis, used with shi jun zi, guan zhong Dosage: 6~9g Attention: cold and deficiency of the spleen and stomach, or kidney yin deficiency
Lian zi (Lotus seed Semen Nelumbinis) Taste and property: neutral, sweet, astringent Meridian tropism: Kidney, Spleen, and heart Actions: Tonifies Spleen and stops diarrhea, Tonifies Kidney and stabilizes essence, Nourishes blood and calms mind Applications –For spleen deficiency with chronic diarrhea and loss of appetite, this herb augments and binds, used with ren shen, bai zhu, fu ling, shan yao, i.e. shen ling bai zhu san. –For premature ejaculation and spermatorrhea due to unstable, deficiency kidneys, used with qian shi, sha yuan zi, i.e. jin suo gu jing wan –For palpitations, irritability, anxiety, insomnia, used with suan zao ren, yuan zhi, fu shen, –Also used for excessive uterine bleeding and vaginal discharge Dosage: 6-15g
Qian shi (Semen Euryales ) Taste and Property: sweet, astringent, neutral Meridian tropism: KI, SP Actions: tonifies spleen and stops diarrhea, stabilizes the kidneys and secures the essence, expels dampness and stops discharge Application –For chronic diarrhea caused by weakness in the transportative function of the spleen. Used with lian zi, fu ling, bai zhu. –For kidney qi deficiency with nocturnal emissions, premature ejaculation, spermatorrhea, and urinary frequency or incontinence, used with sha yuan zi, long gu, i.e. jin suo gu jing wan, used with tu si zi, yi zhi ren, i.e. sang piao xiao san –For vaginal discharge due to either deficiency or damp-heat, used with huang bai, che qian zi, i.e. yi huang tang Dosage: 9~15g
Jin ying zi (Fructus Rosae laevigatae) Taste and Property: sour, astringent, neutral Meridian tropism: UB, KI, LI Actions: stabilizes the kidneys and secures the essence, binds up the intestines and stops diarrhea Application –For spermatorrhea, urinary incontinence, and vaginal discharge due to deficiency and instability of the lower burner, used with sang piao xiao san –For chronic diarrhea and dysenteric disorders, used with dang shen, bai zhu and shan yao Dosage: 6~12g
Fu xiao mai (Fructus Tritici levis ) Taste and Property: sweet, slightly salty, cool Meridian tropism: HT Actions: augments the heart qi, clears heat, stops sweating Application –For spontaneous sweating from qi deficiency, and night sweats from yin deficiency, used with huang qi, duan mu li, i.e. mu li san for spontaneous sweating. Used with di gu pi, wu wei zi, mai men dong for night sweats –For steaming bone disorder, used with sheng di huang, xuan shen, di gu pi Dosage: 15~30g
Ma huang gen (Radix Ephedrae ) Taste and Property: sweet, neutral Meridian tropism: LU Actions: inhibits the exterior to stop sweating Application –For many kinds of sweating from deficiency, including spontaneous sweating due to qi deficiency, nightsweats due to yin deficiency, and postpartum sweating. Used with huang qi, dang gui for incessant spontaneous sweating, used with bai zi ren, sheng di huang for nightsweats Dosage: 3~9g
Hai piao xiao (Os Sepiae seu Sepiellae ) Taste and Property: salty, astringent, slightly warm Meridian tropism: KI, LV, ST Actions: restrains and stops bleeding, secures the essence and stops discharge, controls acidity and alleviates pain, resolves dampness and promotes healing Application –For a wide variety of bleeding patterns, especially those from deficiency, also used topically as a powder to stop bleeding from traumatic injury –For nocturnal emissions, premature ejaculation, or vaginal discharge due to kidney deficiency –Used to harmonize stomach acidity where the symptoms are stomach or epigastric pain, distasteful belching, or acid regurgitation. –Used topically in powdered form for chronic, non-healing skin ulcers or damp rashes of long duration Dosage: 6~12g
Sang piao xiao (Ootheca Mantidis ) Taste and Property: sweet, salty, neutral Meridian tropism: KI, LV Actions: tonifies the kidneys, assists the yang, secures the essence, and contains the urine Application –For kidney yang deficiency with such symptons as dribbling urine, urinary frequency, and nocturnal emissions (especially when unaccompanied by dreams). A very important substance for treating enuresis in children. Also used for impotence. Used with yuan zhi, fu shen, dang gui, i.e. sang piao xiao san. Used with tu si zi, lu rong, rou cong rong, i.e. tu si zi wan Dosage: 4.5~9g
Formulas Formulas that stabilize the exterior and the lung –Jade Windscreen Powder (yu ping feng san) –Oyster Shell Powder (mu li san) –Tangkuei and Six-Yellow Decoction (dang gui liu huang tang) Formulas that restrain leakage from the intestiens –True Man's Decoction for Nourishing the Organs (zhen ren yang zang tang) –Four-Miracle Pill (si shen wan) Formulas that stabilize the kidneys –Mantis Egg-Case Powder (sang piao xiao san) –Shut the Sluice Pill (suo quan wan) –Cinnamon Twig Decoction plus Dragon Bone and Oyster Shell (gui zhi jia long gu mu li tang) –Fetus Longevity Pill (shou tai wan) Formulas that stabilizes the womb –Stabilize Gushing Decoction (gu chong tang) –Stabilize the Menses Pill (gu jing wan) –End Discharge Decoction (wan dai tang) –Change Yellow Discharge Decoction (yi huang tang)
Yu Ping Feng San (Jade Windscreen Powder) Ingredients: Huang qi, bai zhu, fang feng
Actions and indications of the formula Actions –Augment the qi, Stabilize the exterior, and stop sweating Indications –Aversion to drafts, spontaneous sweating, recurrent colds, a shiny pale complexion, a pale tongue with a white coating, and a floating, deficient, and soft pulse.
Analysis of Formula Chief: huang qi –Huang qi: Augment the qi and stabilize the exterior Deputy: bai zhu –Bai zhu: rengthen the spleen and augment qi. Assistant: fang feng –Fang feng: expel wind
Mu li san (Oyster Shell Powder) Ingredients: mu li 30g, huang qi 30g, ma huang gen 30g, fu xiao mai 30g
Actions and indications of the formula Actions –Inhibits sweating and stabilizes the exterior. Indications –Spontaneous sweating that worsens at night, palpitations, easily startled, shortness of breath, irritability, general debility, lethargy, a pale-red tongue, and a thin, frail pulse
Analysis of Formula Chief: Mu li –Benefits the yin, anchors the floating yang, inhibits sweating, and relieves irritability. Deputy: Huang qi –Strongly tonifies the lung qi and is of particular benefit to the superficial protective qi. Assistant: –Ma huang gen: assists the chief ingredient in augmenting the heart qi, restraining sweat, and stabilizing the exterior –Fu xiao mai: nourishes heart yin and clears heat from the heart
Dang gui liu huang tang (Tangkuei and Six-Yellow Decoction) Ingredients: dang gui 15g, sheng di huang 15g, shu di huang 15g, huang qin 15g, huang lian 15g, huang bai 15g, huang qi 30g
Actions and indications of the formula Actions –Enrich the yin, clears heat, stabilizes the exterior, and stops sweating. Indications –Fever, night sweats, red face, dry mouth and parched lips, irritability, dry stools, dark and scanty urine, a red dry tongue, and a rapid pulse.
Analysis of Formula Chief: dang gui, sheng di huang, shu di huang –Dang gui: nourshes the blood, moistens LI and, increases fluids. –Sheng di huang, shu di huang, nourish kidney yin, control the fire Deputy: Huang lian, huang qin, huang bai –Drains fire and clear heat in order to fortify yin Assistant: Huang qi –Augment the protective qi and stabilize the exterior. This is prevents excess sweating from causing further injury to the yin and yang. It also protects the stomach qi from the actions of the other herbs
Modern application and modification Modern application: –Tuberculosis, hepatitis, silicosis, hyperthyroidism, myocarditis, chronic bronchitis, cholecystitis, nephritis Modification: –For especially severe sweating, add: ma huang gen, fu xiao mai –For tidal fever, dry mouth, add: gui ban, zhi mu
Zhen ren yang zang tang (True Man's Decoction for Nourishing the Organs ) Ingredients: Ren shen 3-6g, bai zhu 9-12g, rou gui 3-4.5g, wei rou dou kou 9-15g, he zi 6-15g, zhi ying su ke 6-20g, bai shao 9-15g, dang gui 6-12g, mu xiang 6-9g, zhi gan cao 3-9g
Actions and indications of the formula Actions –Warm the middle, tonify deficiency, restrain leakage from the intestines and stop diarrhea. Indications –Chronic diarrhea or dysenteric disorders with unremitting diarrhea to the point of incontinence, soreness of the lower back, weakness of legs, a pale tongue with a white coating, and a slow thin pulse.
Analysis of Formula Chief: ren shen, bai zhu –Strengthen the spleen and augment the middle qi. Deputy: –rou gui, wei rou dou kou: warm the kidney, dispel cold –He zi, zhi ying su ke: bind up the intestines and stop diarrhea Assistant: –Bai shao, dang gui: tonify the yin and blood. –Mu xiang: revive the spleen and regulate qi Envoy: Zhi gan cao –tonify the middle burner, alleviate pain and harmonize the actions of other herbs
Modern application and attention Modern application: –Chronic colitis, ulcerative colitis, IBS Modification: –For prolapse of rectum, add huang qi and sheng ma –For cold extremities, add Gan jiang and Fu zi Attention: –Not suitable for disorders of excess
Si shen wan (Four-Miracle Pill ) Ingredients: Bu gu zhi 120g, Wu zhu yu 30g, Rou dou kou 60g, Wu wei zi 60g
Actions and indications of the formula Actions –Warm and tonify the spleen and kidney, bind up the intestines and stop diarrhea. Indications –Diarrhea which occurs daily just before sunrise, lack of interest in food an disability to digest what is eaten, soreness of the lower back with cold limbs, a pale tongue with a thin white coating, and a submerged, slow and forceless pulse.
Analysis of Formula Chief: Bu gu zhi –tonify kidney and spleen. Deputy: Rou dou kou –warm the spleen and kidney and bind up the intestines Assistant: –Wu zhu yu: disperse cold in the middle burner –Wu wei zi: strong, warm and astringent to bind up the intestines Envoy: –Sheng jiang: disperse cold –Da zao: nourish the spleen and kidney
Modern application and attention Modern application: –Chronic colitis, allergic colitis Modification: –For prolapse of rectum, add huang qi and sheng ma –For interior cold with abdominal pain and nausea, take with Li zhong wan Attention: –Should not be used for stagnation in the stomach or intestines
Sang piao xiao san (Mantis Egg- Case Powder ) Ingredients: Sang piao xiao 9-12g, long gu 12-30g, ren shen 9-12g, fu shen 9-12g, yuan zhi 3-6g, chang pu 6- 9g, zhi gui ban 9-15g, dang gui 6-9g
Actions and indications of the formula Actions –Regulate and tonify the heart and kidney, stabilize the essence, and stop leakage. Indications –Frequent urination, urine the color of rice water, a pale tongue with a white coating, and a thin, slow and frail pulse.
Analysis of Formula Chief: –Sang piao xiao: tonify the kidneys, stabilize the essence, and stop leakage. –Long gu: bind up the essence, and stop the leakage. Deputy: –Ren shen: tonify qi –Fu shen: calm the spirit –Yuan zhi: facilitate the communication between the heart and kidney –Chang pu: open orifices of the heart and spirit Assistant: –Gui ban, dang gui: nourish blood and yin
Modern application and attention Modern application: –Diabetes mellitus, neurosis Modification: –For palpitations and insomnia, add Suan zao ren Attention: –Contraindicated for incontinence due to either vigorous fire in the lower burner or damp-heat
Suo quan wan (Shut the Sluice Pill ) Ingredients: Yi zhi ren 9-12g, wu yao 6-12g, shan yao 9-15g
Actions and indications of the formula Actions –Warm the kidneys, dispel cold, shut off urinary frequency, and stop leakage. Indications –Frequent, clear and prolonged urination or enuresis accompanied by a pale tongue with a white coating and a submerged, frail pulse.
Analysis of Formula Chief: Yi zhi ren –Warm the kidney and help them grasp the qi. Warm the spleen, which assists in governing the fluids. Deputy: Wu yao –Disperse cold in the lower burner and thereby help transform the bladder qi and restrain urination. Assistant: Shan yao –Strengthen the spleen, tonify the kidney and bind up the essence.
Modern application and attention Modern application: –Good for children with enuresis Modification: –For unremitting incontinence, take with Sang piao xiao san.
Gui zhi jia long gu mu li tang (Cinnamon Twig Decoction plus Dragon Bone and Oyster Shell ) Ingredients: Gui zhi 9g, Bai shao 9g, Long gu 9g, Mu li 9g, Sheng jiang 9g, Da zao 12 pieces, Gan cao 6g
Actions and indications of the formula Actions –Restrain the essence, suppress rebellion, and regulate and harmonize the yin and yang. Indications –Spermatorrhea (in men) or dreaming of sexual intercourse (in women), lower abdominal contraction and pain, a cold sensation at the tip of the penis, occasionally watery diarrhea, dizziness, palpitations, insomnia and dream disturbed sleep, loss of hair, and a hollow, slow pulse.
Analysis of Formula Chief: Gui zhi, Bai shao –Regulate the ying qi and wei qi, help restore proper communication between the yin and yang (kidneys and heart). Deputy: –Long gu: descend the yang so that it reunites with the yin –Mu li: help the yin restrain the yang Assistant: Sheng jiang, da zao –Regulate yang and nourish yin Envoy: Gan cao –Harmonize the actions of other herbs
Modern application and attention Modern application: –Spermatorrhea, anxiety, depression Modification: –For empty fire, add Zhi mu and Huang bai –For insomnia, add He huan pi, Ye jiao teng.
Shou tai wan (Fetus Longevity Pill ) Ingredients: Tu si zi, Sang ji sheng, Xu duan, E jiao
Actions and indications of the formula Actions –Stabilize the kidneys and calm the fetus. Indications –Soreness and distention of the lower back, a sensation of collapse in the lower abdomen, and vaginal bleeding during pregnancy. a pale tongue with a white, slippery coating, and a submerged, frail pulse at the rear position.
Analysis of Formula Chief: Tu si zi, Sang ji sheng –Tonify and stabilize the kidneys and calm the fetus. Deputy: –Xu duan: tonify the liver and kidney –E jiao: enrich the yin and nourish blood, stop bleeding and calm the fetus.
Modern application Modern application: –Threatened miscarriage, habitual miscarriages
Gu chong tang (Stabilize Gushing Decoction ) Ingredients: Chao bai zhu 30g, Shan zhu yu 24g, Huang qi 18g, Bai shao 12g, Duan long gu 24g, Duan mu li 24g, Hai piao xiao 12g, Zong lu tan 6g, Wu bei zi 1.5g, Qian cao gen 9g
Actions and indications of the formula Actions –Augment qi, strengthen spleen, stabilize the penetrating vessel, and stop bleeding. Indications –Uterine bleeding or profuse menstrual bleeding in which the blood is thin and pale, and either gushes out or continuously trickles out. Palpitations, shortness of breath, a pale tongue, an a deficient and big or thin and frail pulse.
Analysis of Formula Chief: Chao bai zhu, huang qi –Augment the qi and strengthen the spleen. Deputy: Shan zhu yu, bai shao –Nourish yin and blood of the liver and kidneys, and exert an astringent, binding effect on the blood. Assistant: Duan mu li, duan long gu, hai piao xiao, wu bei zi, Zong lv tan –Restrain leakage and stop bleeding Envoy: Qian cao gen –Stop bleeding and invigorate blood, to prevent the formation of blood stasis.
Modern application Modern application: –Functional uterine bleeding, excessive post partum bleeding, bleeding peptic ulcer
Gu jing wan (Stabilize the Menses Pill ) Ingredients: Gui ban, Bai shao, Huang qin, Chun gen pi, Huang bai, xiang fu
Actions and indications of the formula Actions –Enrich the yin, clear heat, stop bleeding, and stabilize the menses. Indications –Continuous menstruation or uterine bleeding that alternate between trickling and gushing of blood. irritability in the chest, abdominal pain, dark urine, a red tongue and a rapid, wiry pulse.
Analysis of Formula Chief: Gui ban, bai shao –Enrich the yin, nourish blood. Deputy: –Huang qin: clear heat from upper burner –Huang bai: clear heat from lower burner Assistant: –Xiang fu: an acrid substance that regulate qi and relieve the constraint of the liver. –Chun gen pi: an astringent substance that bind up the blood
Modern application and modification Modern application: –Functional uterine bleeding and chronic pelvic inflammatory diseases Modification: –For severe bleeding, add Di yu and Xian he cao –For yin deficiency, add Di gu pi
Wan dai tang (End Discharge Decoction ) Ingredients: Chao bai zhu 30g, chao shan yao 30g, ren shen 6g, cang zhu 9g, chen pi 1.5g, jiu chao che qian zi 9g, jiu chao bai shao 15g, chai hu 1.8g, jie sui tan 1.5g, gan cao 3g
Actions and indications of the formula Actions –Tonify the middle burner, strengthen spleen, transform dampness, and stop vaginal discharge. Indications –Profuse vaginal discharge. Fatigue, lethargy, a shiny, pale complexion, loose stools, a pale tongue with a white coating, and a frail pulse.
Analysis of Formula Chief: Chao bai zhu, chao shan yao, ren shen –Strengthen the spleen and augment qi, dry dampness and bind up the essence. Deputy: –Cang zhu: dry dampness –Chen pi: move and regulate spleen qi Assistant: –Jiu chao che qian zi: leach out dampness through urine –Chai hu: relieve constraint and soften the liver. –Jie sui: absorb dampness Envoy: –Gan cao: tonify the middle burner and harmonize the other herbs
Modern application and modification Modern application: –Leukorrhagia, diarrhea, edema during pregnancy, edema during menstruation and headache Attention: –This formulas is not suitable for heat or damp heat pattern
Actions and indications of the formula Actions –Strengthen the spleen, dry dampness, clear heat, and stop vaginal discharge. Indications –vaginal discharge that is yellowish-white in color, viscous, and fishy-smelling. A pale complexion, dizziness, a pale tongue with a thin, white coating.
Analysis of Formula Chief: Chao shan yao –Strengthen the spleen and stabilize the lower burner and the essence. Deputy: Huang bai and che qian zi –Drain damp-heat from the lower burner through urine. Assistant: –Chao qian shi, yin xing: stabilize the lower burner and restrain the discharge.
Modern application and modification Modern application: –Chronic pelvic inflammation Attention: –It is only suitable for spleen qi deficiency with accumulation of damp heat