5An Introduction……Force field analysis is an influential development in the field of social science. It provides a framework for looking at the factors (forces) that influence a situation, originally social situations. It looks at forces that are either driving movement toward a goal (helping forces) or blocking movement toward a goal (hindering forces). The principle, developed by Kurt Lewin, is a significant contribution to the fields of social science, psychology, social psychology, organizational development, process management, and change management.
6Lewin’s Three-Step Model of Lewin Organizational Change Force field analysis is a management technique developed by Kurt Lewin, a pioneer in the field of social sciences, for diagnosing situations.Lewin assumes that in any situation there are both driving and restraining forces that influence any change that may occur:Driving ForcesRestraining ForcesEquilibrium
7Understanding the Pressures for.. Favor & Against Change Force Field Analysis is a useful technique for looking at all the forces for and against a decision. In effect, it is a specialized method of weighing pros and cons. By carrying out the analysis you can plan to strengthen the forces supporting a decision, and reduce the impact of opposition to it.
9Defining Concept of “Field”…… For Kurt Lewin behavior was determined by totality of an individual’s situation.In his field theory, a ‘field’ is defined as ‘the totality of coexisting facts which are conceived of as mutually interdependent’.Individuals were seen to behave differently according to the way in which tensions between perceptions of the self and of the environment were worked through. The whole psychological field, or ‘life space’, within which people acted had to be viewed, in order to understand behavior. Within this individuals and groups could be seen in topological terms (using map-like representations). Individuals participate in a series of life spaces (such as the family, work, school and church), and these were constructed under the influence of various force vectors (Lewin 1952).
11Analytical Purpose FFA can be used to: FFA is an analysis technique to identify forces that either drive or restrain planned change aimed at solving a problem in an organization. It is a creative activity that can be used by needs analysts as they focus on solutions which will help an organization make a transformation from the ‘current (problem) state’ to the ‘desired (solved) state’ as they identify interventions to improve performance.FFA can be used to:Identify the forces which support change as well as those which will act against it.Assess the causes of performance problems or inhibitors to business opportunities.Evaluate the relative strength of forces that affect alternative solutions to performance problems or business opportunities.Help analyze and prioritize solutions to problems or areas needing improvement.
12Field Force Process is … Unfreezing--melting away resistanceChange--departure from the status quoRefreezing--change becomes routineWHY TO USE?Force-field analysis focuses our attention on ways of reducing the hindering forces and encouraging the positive ones.
13How to Use It: When to Use It: It helps team members to view each case as two sets of off setting factors. It can be used to study existing problems, or to anticipate and plan more effectively for implementing change. In problem analysis, force-field analysis is especially helpful in defining more subjective issues, such as morale, management, effectiveness, and work climate.When to Use It:How to Use It:Step 1. State the problem or desired state and make sure that all team members understand.Step 2. Brainstorm the positive and negative forces.Step 3. Review and clarify each force or factor. What is behind each factor? What works to balance the situation?
16Carrying Out a Force Field Analysis: To carry out a force field analysis, follow the following steps:List all forces for change in one column, and all forces against change in another column.Assign a score to each force, from 1 (weak) to 5 (strong).Draw a diagram showing the forces for and against, and the size of the forces.Carrying Out a Force Field Analysis:
17DIAGRAM Force Field Diagram A model built on this idea that forces - persons, habits, customs, attitudes - both drive and restrain change. It can be used at any level (personal, project, organizational, network) to visualize the forces that may work in favor and against change initiatives. The diagram helps its user picture the "tug- of-war" between forces around a given issue.
20The Force Field Analysis is a method to: Investigate the Balance of Power involved in issueIdentify the most important player (Stake holder) & target group for the campaign on the issueIdentify opponents and AlliesIdentify how to influence each target group
22HOW TO CONDUCT: Following steps are taken: Describe the current situation .Describe the desired situation .Identify where the current situation will go if no action is taken .List all the forces driving change toward the desired situation .List all the forces resisting change toward the desired situation .Discuss and interrogate all of the forces: are they valid?
23Skills Required: There is no special training for this tool - just good listening skills and the ability to capture comments and help the group to distill them into an action plan that minimizes/ removes the negative forces and maximizes the positive forces. Force Field Analysis is best run by someone who has been involved in the topic under discussion or is familiar with the subject area.Materials required:A flip chart and pens are required. You can also use 'post-it' notes instead of arrows and use a brainstorming technique such as a nominal group to derive a comprehensive list of forces before as a group posting them to a main board for discussion.
25Advantages of Force Field Analysis Brings into the open factors which will work for and against the closing of a gapIdentified by a needs analysis.Helps to recognize circumstances which can and cannot be changed.Provides a means to analyze ways to minimize or eliminate barriers to goal attainment.
26The Limitations of Force Field Analysis Process is subjective and requires collaborative thinking and agreementConcerning forces for and against the solution to a particular problem.May oversimplify the relationships between factors that impact a problem.All aspects of a problem may not be identified.
28The Principal Characteristics of Lewin's field theory is summarized as follows: 1.Behavior is a function of the field that exists at the time the behavior occurs.2. Analysis begins with the situation as a whole from which are differentiated the component parts.3. The concrete person in a concrete situation can represented mathematically.
29Conclusion:This tool has a long history and still maintains its utility despite its apparent simplicity. Use it when your team is blocked in some way or you need to see the wider picture in a change program. It is an essential tool in the armory of a consultant and despite its simplicity is a profound way of looking at an organization