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World War I 1914-1918. Causes of the War Nationalism- Balkans (Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, Albania, Rumania) Imperialism- ¼ of the world under British rule,

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Presentation on theme: "World War I 1914-1918. Causes of the War Nationalism- Balkans (Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, Albania, Rumania) Imperialism- ¼ of the world under British rule,"— Presentation transcript:

1 World War I

2 Causes of the War Nationalism- Balkans (Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, Albania, Rumania) Imperialism- ¼ of the world under British rule, fierce competition Alliances- Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria- Hungary, Italy) Triple Entente (Russia, France, Great Britain) Militarism- Weapons, navies, troops built up and could be moved quickly (trains, etc.) July 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated triggered a chain reaction

3 ©2012, TESCCC

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6 The War Both sides thought it would be over quickly New weapons, trenches, u-boats, airplanes, submarines, gas “Total War” was reached as both sides put everything into war 1917 USA joins after merchant ships are sunk by Germans Also 1917 Russia leaves the war with the October Revolution (Lenin signs peace with Germany)

7 World War I Technology/Weapons

8 Tanks ©2012, TESCCC

9 Zeppelins and “Dog Fights” ©2012, TESCCC

10 GAS ©2012, TESCCC

11 Trench Warfare ©2012, TESCCC

12 Trench Warfare ©2012, TESCCC

13 USA in the war Woodrow Wilson announces war’s aim in the Fourteen Points -Redraw Europe so all ethic groups had a country -Freedom of the seas -End secret diplomacy (alliances) -Create the League of Nations to help with international conflict November 1918 Germany surrendered

14 Country (The Triple Entente)Deaths Russia1,700,000 Great Britain908,371 France1,357,800 Italy650,000 United States116,516 Serbia45,000 Country (The Triple Alliance)Deaths Germany1,773,700 Austria-Hungary1,200,000 Ottoman Empire325,000 Bulgaria87,500 ©2012, TESCCC

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16 Europe (1914, 1924) ©2012, TESCCC

17 Paris Peace Conference 1919 (treaty of Versailles ) Germany lost all overseas colonies, Poland is created and France gains some territory Austria-Hungary is divided up and Ottoman Empire is lost to Middle East countries (Turkey) War Guilt Clause blamed Germany for the war, turned military into a small police force, lost navy, and had to pay reparation to allies League of Nations pledged to defend against aggressors (USA and Russia did not sign on and it was a weakened group) had no military force

18 Effects Treaty of Versailles Wilson’s Fourteen Points League of Nations Economic, Political and Social Effects (Countries that lost the war were affected severely through mandates, sanctions and war reparations) Especially Germany: lost territory, demilitarized and had to pay for war reparations Much of Europe was destroyed and economies suffered great losses which led to instability. A volatile economy often leads to political distress that may change political systems, leadership, alliances and renewed nationalism. A global economic depression soon followed. (interdependence)

19 WWI and the Middle East Turkey did not like Russia so they joined the Central Powers (Ger.) Armenian Massacres- 1 million killed for being Christian and they feared they would support Christian Russia (firing squads, burned, drowned, poisoned, drugged, death marches) Ataturk (Mustafa Kemal) abolished the sultanate in 1923 and formed present day Turkey

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21 Russian Revolution Before WWI most Russian lived in poverty; Tsar and nobles rich Russia entered war; lost many battle; food riots broke out; Tsar Nicholas II overthrown then executed; provisional govt. in place Feb. Rev.) Bolsheviks take power in Oct. Rev.; Lenin promises, “Peace, Bread, and Land”; withdraw from war and communism is new government

22 Russian Civil War ( ) War between the Reds (communists) and Whites (anti- Communists) Spoiler alert: Reds win!! 1921 New Economic Policy (NEP) allowed some small scale private ownership to be permitted because of a food shortage and the peasants where not growing enough food because the government was taking it all away This worked until Lenin’s death 1924; Leon Trotsky (leader of the Red army) was thought to take control, but Joseph Stalin gained control in a power struggle (Trotsky later left USSR and went into hiding; death was knocking)

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