Presentation on theme: "Unit Six: World War I Essential Questions How did MANIA create WWI? In what ways did the “war to end all wars” change the landscape of Europe politically,"— Presentation transcript:
Unit Six: World War I
Essential Questions How did MANIA create WWI? In what ways did the “war to end all wars” change the landscape of Europe politically, economically and culturally?
Militarism- Navy Britain vs. Germany Competition to create the most Dreadnoughts – Britain makes 29 – Germany makes 17 Germany starts making U-Boats
The Alliance System Dual Alliance (1879) Triple Alliance (1882) – Germany, Italy, Austria Franco-Russian Alliance (1892) Triple Entente (1907) – G.B., France, Russia
Imperialism in Africa
Imperialism in Asia
The British Empire 1909
Antagonist Journalism (Propaganda)
Propaganda- When the media or government promotes a certain idea or doctrine.
The Steps toward war Balkan troubles – Series of civil wars ends exclusive control by the Ottomans between 1878-1914 – Leads to increased pressure for control by Austria and the creation of many small countries
The Balkans 1878
Balkan Wars- several small nations gained Ottoman controlled territories
Archduke Franz Ferdinand Sent to Sarajevo Inspect and secure city Potential “threat” was neighboring Serbia
The Assassination: Sarajevo
The Assassin: Gavrilo Princip Gavrilo Princip
Who’s To Blame?
July Ultimatum Franz Josef, leader of Austria-Hungary, makes series of ten demands against Serbia – Serbia fulfills eight out of the ten demands July 28 th 1914, Austria Declares war!
Activating the Alliances July 31 st, Russia backs Serbia, declares war on Austria August 1 st, Germany declares war on Russia August 3 rd, Germany declares war on France August 4 th, Britain declares war on Germany
Enthusiasm for War!
Schlieffen Plan Plan was to : – Invade/conquer France before Russia can mobilize. – Germany invades Neutral Belgium, on August 3rd When done, Germany stalls in Belgium
Battle of the Marne September 5-12, 1914 German advance which is halted by allied forces Allies push Germans back, ending the idea of a quick war Over 200,000 casualties on both sides
The Western Front
Verdun – February, 1916 German offensive. Each side had 500,000 casualties. German offensive. Each side had 500,000 casualties.
The Somme – July, 1916 -60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. -Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months. -60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. -Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.
Eastern Front Russia vs. Germany and Austria Russia mobilizes and advances Russia gains much territory
Battle of Tannenberg Germany vs. Russia Germans win because of… – Using railroads to transport troops – Listening to Russian radio transmissions Germany loses 20,000; Russia loses 140,000
German pushes Germany advances into Russia. Germany and Russia sign the Treaty of Brest- Litovsk
October (Bolshevik) Revolution November 7, 1917 Overthrew the Czar and put a communist government in charge of Russia. By 1922, Russia is known as the USSR or the Soviet Union
Maxim Machine Gun Used by… Germany, USA, Britain, France, Austria, Russia
Artillery- ex. Big Bertha
Artillery at the Battle of Verdun
From Horses to…
British Tanks at Ypres
Use of Planes
Poison gases France first uses mustard gas German uses gas frequently – Chlorine gas – Mustard gas – Tear gas
British soldiers on horseback with gas masks German gas canisters lined up
Wireless Communication Need for communicating over hundreds of miles. Ships and soldiers on the front lines used radio to communicate with commanders
Total War Warfare involving all resources of a nation to fight. – Women – Factories – Roads – Farms – Food rationing – Bonds
War in the Near East Ottoman Empire (Turkey) sides with Germany, Austria and Italy Main interests – further territories in North Africa – Balkans – Protect against Russia
The Gallipoli Disaster, 1915 Allie Objective: land, conquer and advance to Constantinople
Landing at Gallipoli (April 25,1915)
Ally cove on Gallipoli
Australians “Chatting” Making tin can bombs
Pte B. Jackson, 2nd Battalion, day of Armistice, 24th May.... “I came to a spot where the dead were lying two and three deep, and I saw an Australian and a Turk who had run each other through with their bayonets. (they) had fallen dead at the same instant, as their bayonets had not been withdrawn. In their death struggle, their arms must have encircled each other. They had been in that sad embrace for at least a week".
Gallipoli After 8 months, Allies retreat Casualties: – Turkey 86,692 (Axis) – Britain 21,255 – France 9,798 – Australia 8,709 – New Zealand 2,701 – India 1,358 – Newfoundland 49 Imperialism still at work?
The Zimmermann Note “We intend to begin on the 1st of February unrestricted submarine warfare. We shall endeavor in spite of this to keep the United States of America neutral. In the event of this not succeeding, we make Mexico a proposal of alliance on the following basis: make war together, make peace together, generous financial support and an understanding on our part that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in Texas, New Mexico and Arizona. The settlement in detail is left to you. You will inform the President of the above most secretly as soon as the outbreak of war with the United States of America is certain and add the suggestion that he should, on his own initiative, invite Japan to immediate adherence and at the same time mediate between Japan and ourselves. Please call the President's attention to the fact that the ruthless employment of our submarines now offers the prospect of compelling England in a few months to make peace. Signed, Zimmermann. “ http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/1917_Documents
The Sinking of the Lusitania
USA enters the war President Wilson declares war on April 6, 1917 USA leaves isolationism; goes to fight in France USA soldiers known as doughboys
Ludendorff Offensive Germany’s last attempt to conquer France Used Sturmtrüppen to infiltrate trenches Immediate success; stalled when USA arrives
Hundred Day’s Offensive Allies – USA – Britain – Australia – France Beat the Germans and Austrians back into Germany Thus, the war’s fighting is ended
Sergeant Alvin York Most decorated American in WWI Battle of Argonne Forest – 132 prisoners taken – 35 machine guns captured
Asian Theatre of WWI Battle of Tsingtao – Great Britain & Japan vs. Germany Germany loses all imperialist countries around the world Japan is a power in the east
World War I Casualties
President Wilson’s Fourteen Points Speech January 8, 1918 Fourteen Points for ending the war and afterwards: – Free trade throughout Europe – Open Agreements – Self-Determination of countries – Redrawing country borders
Treaty of Versailles June 28, 1919 Germany surrenders – War reparations – Loss of Territories – Limited army (100,000) Creation of the League of Nations – Regulates changes of other countries