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Unit Six: World War I Essential Questions How did MANIA create WWI? In what ways did the “war to end all wars” change the landscape of Europe politically,

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Presentation on theme: "Unit Six: World War I Essential Questions How did MANIA create WWI? In what ways did the “war to end all wars” change the landscape of Europe politically,"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Unit Six: World War I

3 Essential Questions How did MANIA create WWI? In what ways did the “war to end all wars” change the landscape of Europe politically, economically and culturally?

4 Militarism- Navy Britain vs. Germany Competition to create the most Dreadnoughts – Britain makes 29 – Germany makes 17 Germany starts making U-Boats

5 HMS Dreadnought

6 Militarism- Army sizes 1914 Britain- 975,000 Russia- 5,971,000 France- 4,017,000 Germany- 4,500,000 Austria-Hungary- 3,000,000 Italy- 1,251,000 Japan- 800,000 USA- 200,000

7 The Alliance System Dual Alliance (1879) Triple Alliance (1882) – Germany, Italy, Austria Franco-Russian Alliance (1892) Triple Entente (1907) – G.B., France, Russia

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9 Nationalism

10 Imperialism in Africa

11 Imperialism in Asia

12 The British Empire 1909

13 Antagonist Journalism (Propaganda)

14 Propaganda- When the media or government promotes a certain idea or doctrine.

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16 The Steps toward war Balkan troubles – Series of civil wars ends exclusive control by the Ottomans between – Leads to increased pressure for control by Austria and the creation of many small countries

17 The Balkans 1878

18 Balkan Wars- several small nations gained Ottoman controlled territories

19 Archduke Franz Ferdinand Sent to Sarajevo Inspect and secure city Potential “threat” was neighboring Serbia

20 The Assassination: Sarajevo

21 The Assassin: Gavrilo Princip Gavrilo Princip

22 Who’s To Blame?

23 July Ultimatum Franz Josef, leader of Austria-Hungary, makes series of ten demands against Serbia – Serbia fulfills eight out of the ten demands July 28 th 1914, Austria Declares war!

24 Activating the Alliances July 31 st, Russia backs Serbia, declares war on Austria August 1 st, Germany declares war on Russia August 3 rd, Germany declares war on France August 4 th, Britain declares war on Germany

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26 Enthusiasm for War!

27 Schlieffen Plan Plan was to : – Invade/conquer France before Russia can mobilize. – Germany invades Neutral Belgium, on August 3rd When done, Germany stalls in Belgium

28 Schlieffen Plan

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30 Battle of the Marne September 5-12, 1914 German advance which is halted by allied forces Allies push Germans back, ending the idea of a quick war Over 200,000 casualties on both sides

31 The Western Front

32 Trench Warfare

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37 Verdun – February, 1916 German offensive. Each side had 500,000 casualties. German offensive. Each side had 500,000 casualties.

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40 The Somme – July, ,000 British soldiers killed in one day. -Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months. -60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. -Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.

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43 Eastern Front Russia vs. Germany and Austria Russia mobilizes and advances Russia gains much territory

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45 Battle of Tannenberg Germany vs. Russia Germans win because of… – Using railroads to transport troops – Listening to Russian radio transmissions Germany loses 20,000; Russia loses 140,000

46 German pushes Germany advances into Russia. Germany and Russia sign the Treaty of Brest- Litovsk

47 October (Bolshevik) Revolution November 7, 1917 Overthrew the Czar and put a communist government in charge of Russia. By 1922, Russia is known as the USSR or the Soviet Union

48 Communism!

49 New Technologies

50 Maxim Machine Gun Used by… Germany, USA, Britain, France, Austria, Russia

51 Artillery- ex. Big Bertha

52 Artillery at the Battle of Verdun

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55 From Horses to…

56 British Tanks at Ypres

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58 Little Willie

59 Use of Planes

60 Poison gases France first uses mustard gas German uses gas frequently – Chlorine gas – Mustard gas – Tear gas

61 British soldiers on horseback with gas masks German gas canisters lined up

62 Wireless Communication Need for communicating over hundreds of miles. Ships and soldiers on the front lines used radio to communicate with commanders

63 Total War Warfare involving all resources of a nation to fight. – Women – Factories – Roads – Farms – Food rationing – Bonds

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66 War in the Near East Ottoman Empire (Turkey) sides with Germany, Austria and Italy Main interests – further territories in North Africa – Balkans – Protect against Russia

67 Ottoman Empire

68 The Gallipoli Disaster, 1915 Allie Objective: land, conquer and advance to Constantinople

69 Rough Terrain

70 Landing at Gallipoli (April 25,1915)

71 Ally cove on Gallipoli

72 Australians “Chatting” Making tin can bombs

73 Pte B. Jackson, 2nd Battalion, day of Armistice, 24th May.... “I came to a spot where the dead were lying two and three deep, and I saw an Australian and a Turk who had run each other through with their bayonets. (they) had fallen dead at the same instant, as their bayonets had not been withdrawn. In their death struggle, their arms must have encircled each other. They had been in that sad embrace for at least a week".

74 Gallipoli After 8 months, Allies retreat Casualties: – Turkey 86,692 (Axis) – Britain 21,255 – France 9,798 – Australia 8,709 – New Zealand 2,701 – India 1,358 – Newfoundland 49 Imperialism still at work?

75 The Zimmermann Note “We intend to begin on the 1st of February unrestricted submarine warfare. We shall endeavor in spite of this to keep the United States of America neutral. In the event of this not succeeding, we make Mexico a proposal of alliance on the following basis: make war together, make peace together, generous financial support and an understanding on our part that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in Texas, New Mexico and Arizona. The settlement in detail is left to you. You will inform the President of the above most secretly as soon as the outbreak of war with the United States of America is certain and add the suggestion that he should, on his own initiative, invite Japan to immediate adherence and at the same time mediate between Japan and ourselves. Please call the President's attention to the fact that the ruthless employment of our submarines now offers the prospect of compelling England in a few months to make peace. Signed, Zimmermann. “

76 The Sinking of the Lusitania

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78 USA enters the war President Wilson declares war on April 6, 1917 USA leaves isolationism; goes to fight in France USA soldiers known as doughboys

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80 Ludendorff Offensive Germany’s last attempt to conquer France Used Sturmtrüppen to infiltrate trenches Immediate success; stalled when USA arrives

81 Hundred Day’s Offensive Allies – USA – Britain – Australia – France Beat the Germans and Austrians back into Germany Thus, the war’s fighting is ended

82 Sergeant Alvin York Most decorated American in WWI Battle of Argonne Forest – 132 prisoners taken – 35 machine guns captured

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84 Asian Theatre of WWI Battle of Tsingtao – Great Britain & Japan vs. Germany Germany loses all imperialist countries around the world Japan is a power in the east

85 World War I Casualties

86 President Wilson’s Fourteen Points Speech January 8, 1918 Fourteen Points for ending the war and afterwards: – Free trade throughout Europe – Open Agreements – Self-Determination of countries – Redrawing country borders

87 Treaty of Versailles June 28, 1919 Germany surrenders – War reparations – Loss of Territories – Limited army (100,000) Creation of the League of Nations – Regulates changes of other countries

88 European territory changes 1918

89 German Territorial Losses:

90 League of Nations Mandates in the Middle East


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