Presentation on theme: "Unit Six: World War I Essential Questions How did MANIA create WWI? In what ways did the “war to end all wars” change the landscape of Europe politically,"— Presentation transcript:
The Steps toward war Balkan troubles – Series of civil wars ends exclusive control by the Ottomans between 1878-1914 – Leads to increased pressure for control by Austria and the creation of many small countries
July Ultimatum Franz Josef, leader of Austria-Hungary, makes series of ten demands against Serbia – Serbia fulfills eight out of the ten demands July 28 th 1914, Austria Declares war!
Activating the Alliances July 31 st, Russia backs Serbia, declares war on Austria August 1 st, Germany declares war on Russia August 3 rd, Germany declares war on France August 4 th, Britain declares war on Germany
Pte B. Jackson, 2nd Battalion, day of Armistice, 24th May.... “I came to a spot where the dead were lying two and three deep, and I saw an Australian and a Turk who had run each other through with their bayonets. (they) had fallen dead at the same instant, as their bayonets had not been withdrawn. In their death struggle, their arms must have encircled each other. They had been in that sad embrace for at least a week".
Gallipoli After 8 months, Allies retreat Casualties: – Turkey 86,692 (Axis) – Britain 21,255 – France 9,798 – Australia 8,709 – New Zealand 2,701 – India 1,358 – Newfoundland 49 Imperialism still at work?
The Zimmermann Note “We intend to begin on the 1st of February unrestricted submarine warfare. We shall endeavor in spite of this to keep the United States of America neutral. In the event of this not succeeding, we make Mexico a proposal of alliance on the following basis: make war together, make peace together, generous financial support and an understanding on our part that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in Texas, New Mexico and Arizona. The settlement in detail is left to you. You will inform the President of the above most secretly as soon as the outbreak of war with the United States of America is certain and add the suggestion that he should, on his own initiative, invite Japan to immediate adherence and at the same time mediate between Japan and ourselves. Please call the President's attention to the fact that the ruthless employment of our submarines now offers the prospect of compelling England in a few months to make peace. Signed, Zimmermann. “ http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/1917_Documents
President Wilson’s Fourteen Points Speech January 8, 1918 Fourteen Points for ending the war and afterwards: – Free trade throughout Europe – Open Agreements – Self-Determination of countries – Redrawing country borders
Treaty of Versailles June 28, 1919 Germany surrenders – War reparations – Loss of Territories – Limited army (100,000) Creation of the League of Nations – Regulates changes of other countries